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18 Cards in this Set

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Acyclovir is used to treat...
herpes simplex virus
Regarding the cellular basis for bacterial resistance to antimicrobics, list 4 characteristics for such resistance.
1. bacterial chromosome mutations
2. synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure
3. prevention of drug entry into the cell
4. alteration of drug receptors on cell targets.
A superinfection results from...
decrease in most normal flora with overgrowth of an unaffected species
A ratio of the dose of the drug that is toxic to humans versus the minimum effective dose for that pathogen is assessed to predict the potential for toxic drug reactions. This is called the;
therapeutic index
Selective toxicity refers to...
damage to the target organisms but not vertebrate cells.
List 4 antimicrobials that disrupt prokaryotic ribosomes.
1. streptomycin
2. gentamicin
3. tetracycline
4. erythromycin
Sulfa drugs work on...
folic acid biosynthesis
Clavulanic acid...
inhibits B lactamase activity
List 3 mechanisms for drug resistance transfer between microorganisms.
1. transposons
2. R plasmids
3. conjugation
Sulfanamides are analogs of PABA and, as a result, they inhibit________synthesis.
folic acid
Drugs that insert on the ____ ribosomal subunit prevent peptide bond formation or inhibit translocation of the subunit during translation.
50S
Drugs that act by mimicking the normal substrate of an enzyme, thereby blocking its active site, are called...
competitive inhibitors
All______ consist of a thiazolidine ring, a beta lactam ring, and an R group.
penicillins
The major source of naturally produced penicillin is the mold______.
Penicillium chrysogenum
The _________ are drugs that deposit in developing teeth and cause a permanent brown discoloration.
tetracyclins
Fuzeon blocks HIV binding to host cell receptors. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
resistance factor plasmids are transferred to other bacterial cells during transformation, transduction and conjugation. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
The Kirby Bauer test uses an agar surface, seeded with the test bacterium, to which small discs containing a specific concentration of several drugs are placed on the surface. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.