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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List 4 physical agents for controlling microbial growth.
1. UV radiation
2. boiling water
3. HEPA filters
4. H2O2
Bacterial endospores have the highest resistance to physical and chemical controls. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
The process that destroys or removes all microorganisms and microbial forms including bacterial endospores is...
sterilization
The process of using a cleansing technique to mechanically remove and reduce microorganisms and debris to safe levels is...
degermation
The use of a physical or chemical process to destroy vegetative pathogens is...
disinfection
The use of chemical agents directly on exposed body surfaces to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens is...
antisepsis
Sporocides acn be used to acheive sterility. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
Regarding the rate of microbial death, one can say that cells in a culture die at a constant rate. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
Sterilization is acheived by...
steam autoclave
Dry heat is less effecient...
than moist heat.
List 4 ways of killing endospores.
1. Dry heat at 170C for 2 hours
2. incineration
3. glutaraldehyde for 3 or more hours
4. ethylene oxide for 3 or more hours
What are the minimal sterilizing conditions in a steam autoclave?
121C at 15psi for 15min.
The shortest time required to kill all the microbes in a sample at a specified temperature is called the...
thermal death time(TDT)
Disinfection of beverages such as apple juice, milk and wine is optimally acheived by...
pasteurization
Electrons are ejected from atoms in cells when organisms are exposed to...
gamma and X rays.
List 4 heavy metals used for antisepsis.
1. tincture of iodine
2. Merthiolate
3. silver nitrate solutions
4. mercurochrome
vegetative bacteria and fungi are the easiest microbial forms to kill or inhibit are...
vegetative bacteria and fungi.
List 4 compounds that are phenols.
1. Lysol
2. hexachlorophene
3. cresols
4. chloramines
List 4 factors of hypochlorites.
1. release hypochlorous acid in solution
2. cause denaturation of enzymes
3. used to disinfect dairy, restaurant and medical equipment
4. found in bleach
List 4 substances used as an antiseptic.
1. iodophor
2. chlorhexadine
3. 3% H2O2
4. merthiolate
Betadine is considered an iodophor. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
The compound that is an organic base containing chlorine and 2 phenolic rings, and is used increasingly for wound degerming is...
chlorhexadine
List 4 characteristics of alcohol.
1. denature proteins when in a 50-95% alcohol water solution
2. disinfect items soaked in alcohol
3. are skin degerming agents
4. at 50% or higher concentrations dissolve cell membrane lipids
List 4 alkylating control agents.
ethylene oxide
glutaraldehyde
formaldehyde
propylene oxide
The sterilizing gas used in chemiclaves is...
ethylene oxide
The chemical agent that produces highly reactive hydroxyl free radicals and also decomposes to O2 gas is...
H2O2
List 4 agents that act as surfactants.
detergents
soaps
quartenary ammonia
List several cellular targets of antimicrobials.
cell wall
cell membrane
ribosomes
cellular proteins
Placing organisms at 4C is...
bacterioststic
Pasteurization reduces the number of vegetative forms. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
Gamma, X rays and cathode are forms of radiation in order from the most penetrating to the least penetrating. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
Filtration sterilization removes viruses. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
Vials of microorganisms that undergo the freeze drying process called________ will remain preserved and viable for years.
lyophilization
A method for sterilizing milk, called_______ treatment, uses 134C for 1-2 sec.
ultra high temperature
Ultraviolet radiation excites atoms to a higher energy state within molecules such as DNA that then leads to the formation of pyrimidine dimers. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
Chlorine is a halogen used in gaseous and liquid form for large scale disinfection of drinking water and sewage. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
______ solution was introduced in the late 19th century for preventing gonococcal infections in a newborns eye after exposure to the mothers infected birth canal.
AgNO3
Saliva and pus can interfere with the actions of disinfectants. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
Sonication dislodges debris and saliva from instruments but will not reliably acheive disinfection or sterilization. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
Aniline dyes like crystal violet have antimicrobial activity particularly against G+ bacteria and some fungi. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE