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45 Cards in this Set

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What is the glycocalyx composed of?
It is usually composed of polysaccharides and appears as a network of fibers,a slime layer or a capsule much like the glycocalyx of procaryotes.
Fungi and most algae have a thick rigid cell wall surrounding a cell membrane, whereas protozoa, a few algae, and all animal cells lack a cell wall and have only a cell membrane. TRUE/FALSE
Where are sterols found?
In addition to phospholipids, eucaryotic membranes also contain sterols of various kinds. Sterols are different from phospholipids in both structure and behavior. This strenghthening feature is extremely important in cells that lack a cell wall.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum appears rough because of large numbers of ribosomes partly attached to its membrane surface. TRUE/FALSE
What is smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
It is a closed tubular network without ribosomes that functions in nutrient processing and in synthesis and storage of non protein macromolecules such as lipids.
What is the difference between microscopic and macroscopic fungi?
The kingdom, or Myceteae is quite large. The app. 100,000 species of fungi can be divided into 2 groups. Macroscopic classifies mushrooms, puffballs and gill fungi. Microscopic fungi covers molds and yeasts.
What are the two morphological types of microscopic fungi?
Yeasts and Hyphae. A yeast cell is distinguished by its round to oval shape and by its mode of asexual production.
Are fungi saprobes?
Yes. They obtain substrates from the remnants of dead plants and animals in soil or acquatic habitats
What is a mycelium?
It is the intertwining mass of hyphae that makes up the body or colony of a mold.
In most fungi, the hyphae are divided into segments by cross walls or septa, a condition called septate. TRUE/FALSE
What is the nature of fungal septae?
The nature of septa varies from solid partitions with no communication between compartments to partial walls with small pores that allow the flow of organelles and nutrients between adjacent compartments.
Can indoor fungi give rise to medical problems?
Yes. Common air contaminants as penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Stachybotrys. All have the capacity to give off airborne spores and toxins, that when inhaled, cause a whole spectrum of symptoms, often referred to as "sick building syndrome".
What are vegetative hyphae/
They are mycelia. They are responsible for the visible mass of growth that appears on the surface of a substrate and penetrates it to digest and absorb nutrients
During development of a fungal colony, the vegetative hyphae give rise to structures called reproductive or fertile hyphae, which branch off vegetative mycelium. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. These hyphae are responsible for the production of fungal reproductive bodies called spores.
What is the most general subdivision on how spores arise?
Asexual spores are the products of mitotic division of a single parent cell, and sexual spores are formed through a process involving the fusing of two parental nuclei followed by meiosis.
What are the two subtypes of asexual spore formation?
What is the difference between the two?
Sporangiospores- are formed within a saclike head called a sporangium which is attached to a stalk, the sporangiophore. The sporangium ruptures eventually.
2. Conidia- are free spores not enclosed by a sac.
Conidia are the most common asexual spores. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Several forms of conidia are recognized.
Arthrospore/chlamydospore/blastospore/phialaspore/ and porospores.
The majortiy of fungi produce sexual spores at some point. TRUE/FALSE
List the three most common sexual spores?
1. Zygospores- create a diploid zygote(Rhizopus stolonifer, bread mold)
2. Ascospores- are created inside a fungal sac or ascus. They form haploid spores
Basidiospores- are haploid sexual spores formed on the outside of a clubbed shape cell called a basidium.
What is the difference between 'perfect and imperfect" Amastigomycota fungi?
Perfect-fungi that produce sexual and asexual spores. They are the; Zygomycota/Ascomycota/Basidiomycota.
Are any of the Ascomycota pathogenic?
Yes. Histoplasma, the cause of Ohio valley fever
Microsporum, cause of ringworm.
Penicillium and sacchromyces are species used for production of antibiotics and food respectively.
Pneumocystis(carinii) jiroveci, a pathogen of AIDS patients.
Are there any pathogenic species that belong to Basidiomycota?
Yes. Cryptococcus neoformans, causes an invasive systemic systemic infection in several organs, including the skin, brain and lungs.
Are there any species of interest that belong to the imperfect amastigomycota?
yes. This classification is referred to as Deuteromycota.
several human pathogens were originally placed in this group, especially Blastomyces and Microsporum.
Other species are Coccidioides immitis(valley fever) Candida albicans(yeast infections) Cladosporium(mildew fungus) Stachybotrus(toxic mold).
Fungal cell walls give off chemical substances that can cause allergies.
Yes. Aspergillus flavus, synthesizes a lethal poison called aflatoxin, which may cxause liver cancer.
Algae, occur in unicellular, colonial and filamentous forms and the larger forms can possess tissues and simple organs. TRUE/FALSE
The most noticeable of algal organelles are the chloroplasts, which contain in addition to the green pigment chlorophyll, a number of other pigments that create the yellow, red, and brown coloration of some groups. TRUE/FALSE
Are algae ever pathogenic?
generally not. Animal tissues would be rather inhospitable to algae. One exception is prototheca, an unusual non-photosynthetic alga, which has been associated with skin and and subcutaneous infections in humans and animals.
Is there ever a medical threat from algae?
It can be initiated by food poisoning. During certain seasons ofthe year, the overgrowth of these motile algae imparts a brilliant red color to the water(red tide) When intertidal animals feed, their bodies accumulate toxins given off by the algae that can persist for several months.
What is "paralytic shellfish poisoning"?
It is caused by eating exposed clams or other invertebrates. It is marked by severe neurological symptoms and can be fatal.
What is Ciguatera?
It is a serious intoxication caused by algal toxins that have accumulated in fish such as bass and mackeral. Cooking does not destroy the toxin, and there is no antodote.
What is Pfeisteria piscidida?
It is a toxic algal form. It was reported in fish and was later transmitted to humans. This species occurrs in atleast 20 forms. Both fish and humans develop neurological symptoms and bloody skin lesions. cause is from nutrient rich agricultural runoff.
The protozoa constitute a very large group, about 65,000 species, although single celled have startling and complex properties. TRUE/FALSE
Where is endo and ectoplasm differentiated?
In protozoan cells. They do not possess chloroplasts. The cytoplasm is divided into a clear outer layer called ectoplasm, and a granular inner region called endoplasm. Ectoplasm is involved in locomotion, endoplasm houses the nucleus, mitochondria and food vacuoles.
protozoa are heterotrophic and usually require their food in a complex organic form. Free living species are scavengers(algae or live cells). TRUE/FALSE
Many protozoa can convert to a resistant, dormant stage called a cyst. TRUE/FALSE
What is their mode of locomotion?
Except for the Apicomplexa, protozoa are motile by means of pseudopods, flagella or cilia.
What is Trichomonas vaginalis?
It is a protozoal flagellate, and causes a common sexually transmitted disease. It does not form cysts, and is more delicate, and must be transmitted by intimate contact. by example, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia form cysts and are readily transmitted in contaminated water.
What is cryptosporidiosis?
It is called by a single celled protozoan parasite named Cryptosporidium parvum. It takes 1-10 oocysts to cause disease. Its oocysts are resistant to disinfectants and recommended concentrations of chlorine. Oysters remove oocysts from contaminated waters and retain them on their gills and within their body.
What are the 4 groups of important protozoa/
1. Mastigophora(flagellated). They reproduce by syngamy,(longitudinal fission). Trypanosoma and Leishmania, are blood pathogens spread by insect vectors. Giardia and trichomonas are others.
2. Sarcodina(amoebas)-Most amoebas are free living. Entamoeba is one example of a pathogenic species.
3. Ciliaphora(ciliated)Most are harmless.
4. Apicomplexa- Motility is absent. Sporozoa produce sporozoites following sexual reproduction. plasmodium, causes 100 -300 million cases of malaria each year world wide. Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis.
What are Trypanosomes?
They are pathogenic flagellates. they belong to the genus Trypanosoma. two important representatives are T. brucei and T. cruzi. T. cruzi causes Chagas' disease. It occurs in the blood and transmitted by blood sucking vectors.
How is Chagas' disease spread/
It requires a mammel and an insect.mammalian hosts are dogs, cats opposums, armadillos and foxes. the vector is the reduviid bug(kissing bug). It can be spread via pregnancy. the trypanosome trophozoite multiplies in the intestinal tract of the bug and is harbored in the feces. the trypanosomes multiply in muscle and WBCs.These cells may rupture and release other trophozoites.
Regarding helminths, what are the recognized morphological forms?
Two major groups are the flatworms and the roundworms(nematodes). The Flatworm group is subdivided into the cestodes or tapeworms and the Trematodes, or flukes.
In Nematodes, the sexes are separate and usually different in appearance. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. In Trematodes, the sexes can be either separate or hermaphroditic. Cestodesd are generally hermaphroditic.
A single female Ascaris can lay 200,000 eggs a day, and a large female can contain over 25,000,000 eggs at varying stages of development. TRUE/FALSE