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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the basic life cycle of Enterobius vermicularis?
It is very simple. The eggs are ingested, and the pinworms mature in the cecum and ascending large intestine.
The female migrates to the perianal area(night) to lay her eggs which become infectious 6 hrs later.
What is the diagnostic approach?
The placing of scotch tape firmly on the perianal area. It will pick up eggs which can be viewed. occasionally, at night larger female can sometimes be seen crawling the perianal area.
How is Enterobius treated?
mebendazole or pyrantel pamoate.
Bed sheets should be changed daily.
How is Enterobius treated?
mebendazole or pyrantel pamoate.
Bed sheets should be changed daily.
List some characteristics of blood and tissue nematodes.
1. They are not spread by fecal contamination.
2. They are spread via arthropods.
3. Belong to family Filarioidea.
4. Adult filariae live in the lymphatic tissue and give birth to prelarval forms(do not lay eggs) called microfilariae.
5. They burrow in tissue and circulate in the blood, and are picked up by bloodsucking arthropods.
What is Onchocerca volvulus?
They are found in Africa and Central america and south America.
Larvae are transmitted by the bite of black flies.
The microfilariae mature into adults which are found coiled up in fibrous nodules in the skin.
What are some of the symptoms?
patients develop a pruritic skin rash with the formation of papular lesions that are intraepithelial granulomas.
Microfilariae may migrate to the eyes causing blindness(river blindness)(fly breeds in streams)
How is it diagnosed?
It is made by demonstrating microfilariae in the skin(biopsy).
They can as well be seen in the eyes(cornea and anterior chamber)
How is Onchocerciasis treated?
It is treated with Ivermectin. It kills microfilariae and prevents them from leaving the uteri of adult worms. (Merck)
What is Wucheria bancrofti and Brugia malayi?
Both of these cause a lymphatic infection that results in chronic leg swelling.
Wucheria is endemic to the Pacific islands and Africa, while Brugia is endemic to the Malay peninsula. Both are spread by the bite of a mosquito.
The transmitted microfilariae mature into adults within lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes of the genitals and lower extremities. TRUE/FALSE
Regarding Wucheria, frequent infections in endemic area result in acute febrile episodes, given with headaches and swollen inguinal lymph nnodes. TRUE/FALSE
What is Elephantiasis?
Occasionally, fibrous tissues will form around dead Filariae that remain within lymph nodes. This tissue plugs up the lymphatic system which results in swelling of the legs and genitals.
How is diagnosis made?
By the identification of microfilariae in blood drawn at nighttime. Very few organisms circulate in daytime(nocturnal periodicity).
Positive antibody titers via immunofluorescence.
What is the treatment protocol?
Lymphatic damage may require surgery.
What is Dracunculis medinensis?
This is a tissue invasive nematode, and lives as a larval form inside intermediate hosts, such as freshwater copepods(crustaceans).
What is the pathogenesis?
When a person drinks water containing the microscopic crustacean, the larvae penetrate the penetrate the intestine and move deep into subcutaneous tissue, where adults develop and then mate.
What happens post-mating?
The male is thought to die, but the female grows over the course of a year to a size of 100cm.
She then migrates to the skin and a loop of her body pokes out and exposes her uterus.
What are the symptoms?
Allergic reactions, nausea vomiting, breathlessness, during larval release.
A common practice involves driving a small stick under the part of the worms body that is looped out of the skin. The stick is slowly twisted each day to pull out the 100cm Dracunculis. TRUE/FALSE
What is creeping eruption?
This is an intensely pruritic migratory skin infection. The larvae of dog and cat hookworms penetrate the skin and migrate beneath the epidermis.
As the larvae move(several cm/day) an allergic response is mounted. The dog hookworm Ancylostoma braziliensis and other species are responsible.