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20 Cards in this Set

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Where is Trichomonas found/
T. vaginalis is found in the vagina and male urethra. It is transmitted sexually. It is a flagellated protozoon.
What are some of its symptoms?
Females will complain of itching, burning on urination and excess vaginal secretions.
Males are usually asymptomatic.
How is it diagnosed?
Microscopic examination of vaginal discharge on a wet mount. It is a highly motile parasite.
Exam. of urine may be revealing.
It is treated with metronidazole.
Are there free living meningitis causing Amoebas?
Yes.
1. Naegleria fowleri
2. Acanthomoeba.
They live in fresh water of lakes and swimming pools. Actual infection rarely occurs.
How do these organisms penetrate?
They penetrate the nasal mucosa, through the cribiform plate into the brain and spinal fluid.
What are the symptoms?
Infected persons will present with a fever, nausea and vomiting. They have a history of swimming a week earlier.
How are Naegleria fowleri diagnosed?
Examination of CSF reveals a high neutrophil count, low glucose, and high protein, like bacterial meningitis. The Gram stain and culture reveal no bacteria, but microscopic exam may reveal motile amoeba.
How is it treated?
Two payients who survived were treated with intrathecal amphoteracin B.
What is the pathogenesis of Acanthomoeba?
It is responsible for a chronic, granulomatous brain infection in immunocompromised patients. Headaches, fever and seizures are signs.
How is it diagnosed and treated?
Exam. of CSF and brain tissue will reveal Acanthomoeba in both cyst stage and trophozoite.
Treatment is difficult and involves multiple antifungal drugs with pentamidine.
Where is Toxoplasma gondii found?
Many animals are infected with this, and humans are infected by the ingestion of cysts in undercooked meats or food contaminated with kitty litter.
It is estimated that 70-80% of cats are infected.
It undergoes sexual division in the cat and is excreted in the feces.
How does T. gondii present?
Fever, lymphnode enlargement pneumonia and spleen enlargement. Toxoplasma encephalitis is the most common CNS infection in AIDS patients. It may mimick a growing mass, much like a tumor. Examination of the retina reveals yellow, white fluffy patches that stansd out from the surrounding red retina.
Transplacental fetal infection can occur if a pregnant woman who has never been exposed to T. gondii is infected. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
Congenital toxoplasmosis can cause many problems, including chorioretinitis, blindness, seizures, mental retardation, microencephaly encephalitis and other defects. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
How is acute toxoplasmosis treated?
Silfadiazine/pyrimethamine
Pneumocystis carinii has been shown to be more closely related to fungi. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. It can invade the lungs of all individuals at an early age and persists in a latent state.
Based on IgM and IgG studies it appears that about 85% of children have had a mild or asymptomatic respiratory illness by age 4. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What would one expect to find on P. carinii chest films?
They may show diffuse perihilar interstitial streaking bilaterally, sparing the outer lung margins. If an absolute T4 cell count is oredered and the patient has 150 T -helper cells(normal is 1,000), this can be confirmatory for immunocompromised disease such as AIDS.
Diagnosis of Pneumocystis c. can be made by silver staining alveolar lung secretions, revealing the flying saucer appearing fungi. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
Symptomatic patients with P. carinii can be treated with high dose of Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or intravenous pentamidine. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.