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11 Cards in this Set

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P. falciform, the most aggressive species will invade up to 30% of RBCs. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What is the organismal effect of affected RBCs?
RBCs become sticky. They tend to plug up post capillary venules in organs such as kidney, lung and even the brain.
Most deaths occur in children less than 5 years old in sub Saharan africa. These children develop cerebral malaria.
What other corporeal effects are seen with malaria?
Hepatomegaly and Splenomegaly. These organs enlarge as fixed phagocytic cells pick up large amounts of debris from destroyed RBCs. The spleen may rupture.
What offers resistance to this disease?
Many African american and African blacks are resistant to P. vivax and falciform.
The resistance to P. vivax is based on the absence of red cell membrane antigens, Duffy A/B that the P. vivax uses for binding.
The sickle cell anemia trait(hemoglobinA/S appears to help protect the red cells from P. falciform invasion.
How is it diagnosed.
Exam of thin and thick smears under oil immersion magnification of trophozoites and shizonts within the RBCs.
Fluorescently labeled antibodies is another method.
What type of chemical prophylaxis is employed?
When traveling to an area without chloroquine resistance, "chloroquine" is used. If there is resistance, mefloquine or doxycycline may be used.
It is wise to carry a pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine(fansidar) starter pack to take in case of breakthrough infection.
P. malariae/vivax/ovale are all susceptible to chloroquine. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. P. vivax/ovale have exo-erythrocytic cycles in the liver and will be protected there from chloroquine.
Primaquine will kill liver holdouts.
Severe infection(cerebral malaria) is treated how?
I/V or I/M quinine, quinidine or artemether.
(Artemether is a new therapy for severe falciparum malaria in children and adults.
Quinine can be injected I/M. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
Artemether(artesunate) is derived from a traditional chinese malaria remedy(wormwood)
Can all antimalarial drugs be taken orally. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. All cause as well GI upset as a primary adverse effect.
is there an association between these anti-malarial drugs and persons with glucose 6 phosphate deficiency?
Yes. Chloroquine, primaquine and quinine all cause hemolysis in patients with G-6-P-D.