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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the major constituents of innate immunity?
Physical barrier-skin/mucus membrane
Soluble factors-complement/cytokines
Physiological factors-temperature/pH
Cellular defenses-NK cells/ neutrophils
Name some antimicrobial substances found in mucus?
Lysozyme/immunoglobin A antibodies/iron protein proteins.
What is the target of lysozyme?
Peptidoglycan structure of Gram + cell walls.
What is the function of the secretory component of IgA?
Protection from proteolysis.
Name some bacteria that specifically target the mucociliary apparatus?
Bordetella pertussis/Haemophilus influenzae/Pseudomonas aeruginosa/Mycoplasma pneumoniae
What are some nonimmunological components of intestinal defense?
Acid in stomach/pancreatic enzymes/bile/Paneth cells(secrete defensins) and lysozymes and peristalsis.
What kind of immune response is elicited by capsular polysaccharide?
T cell independent antibodies are generated by B cells to aid macrophages in phagocytosis(opsonization)
Why does splenectomy predispose to infection with encapsulated organisms?
The spleen is a lymphoid organ containing B cells and macrophages needed to clear encapsulated organisms.
What type of infections are seen following splenectomy?
S. pneumoniae, Neisseria and Haemophilus are common
What conditions are usually treated with splenectomy?
Hereditary spherocytosis/Idiopathic thrombocytpaenic purpura/Trauma/Neoplasia
Which disease is associated with autosplenectomy?
Sickle cell anemia
What is the role of colplement in innate immunity?
Opsonization/phagocytosis/cytolysis and chemotaxis
List three cytokines secreted by macrophages in innate immunity.
1. TNF-alpha(induces inflammatory responses)
2. Interleukin-1(induces fever)
3. Interleukin-6(Induces acute phase response.
What is the acute phase response? Name several acute phase proteins?
It represents a group of proteins released from the liver as part of innate immunity.
1. C-reactive protein(clears necrotic debris and may activate the classical complement pathway.
2. Haptoglobin-(conserves body iron by binding hemoglobin)
3. Fibrinogen(limits spread of bacteria).
What immune cells are involved in innate immunity?
NK cells/neutrophils/macrophages
What group of receptots allows neutrophils and macrophages to recognize conserved bacterial structures such as LPS?
Toll-like receptors(pattern recognition)
Neutrophils engulf bacteria and kill them by what mechanism?
O2 dependent(respiratory burst) and O2 independent(muramidase, lactoferrin, low pH)
What enzyme produces superoxide O2 from oxygen?
NADPH(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the neutrophil cell membrane.
What enzyme converts superoxide(O2-) from oxygen(O2)?
Superoxide dismutase
Which enzyme degrades peroxide(H2O2) and thereby protects bacteria?
What enzyme forms hypochlorite(HOCL-) from peroxide(H2O2) and chloride(Cl-)?
Myeloperoxidase. Hypochlorite is 50X more potent than peroxide at killing bacteria.
In addition to respiratory bursts, what other free radical generating system is found in macrophages?
Inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) produces nitric oxide(NO).