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9 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the two main clinical manifestations of Leprosy?
Lepromatous and tuberculoid leprosy
What is lepromatous leprosy?
Form of leprosy that results from failure of cell mediated immunity and primarily affectes the nerves, skin, eyes and testes, leading to loss of sensation in stocking glove distribution, leonine facies, saddle nose deformity, blindness and infertility. Sensory loss can lead to repetitive trauma and secondary infection, eventually leading to loss of fingers and toes.
What is tuberculoid Leprosy?
Form of Leprosy that is mild and sometimes self limiting disease in a person with intact cell mediated immunity. Usually, one to two hypopigmented, hairless skin lesions with diminished sensation. Enlarged nerves near the skin may be palpable(greater auricular, ulnar, posterior, tibial and peroneal.
How is Leprosy transmitted?
Respiratory secretions or contact with skin.
What conditions favor growth of M. leprae?
Low temperature(30C). M. leprae affects cool areas of the body surface of the skin in distal extremities and the nose.
How is M. leprae cultured or grown?
M. leprae cannot be cultured on artificial media and has been grown on mouse footpads and in armadillos(doubling time in 14 days).
What is the main host defense against Leprosy?
Cell mediated immunity(CD4 T cells and macrophages) because M. leprae is a facultative intracellular pathogen.
What is the treatment for Leprosy?
Dapsone and Rifampin for tuberculoid form. Add clofazimine for lepromatous form. because of slow growth rate, must treat for atleast 2 years.
How are close contacts prophylactically treated?