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8 Cards in this Set

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Describe the characteristic appearance of Vibrio cholerae.
Gram neg rod with a single polar flagellum, giving it a comma shape.
What does V. cholera require in order to cause clinical disease cholera?
Infection of V. cholera with the CTX phage that encodes the cholera toxin.
What is the mechanism of action of cholera toxin?
Constitutively activates Gs via ADP-ribosylation leading to constant activation of adenylate cyclase and high levels of cAMP. This results in increased secretion of Cl- ions from intestinal cells into the GI lumen followed by positively charged Na+ ions. Water follows Na+ into the lumen leading to diarrhea.
What are the physical findings in an individual infected with V. cholera?
Severe dehydration from continuous watery diarrhea with a rice water appearance. Look for sunken eyes, poor skin turgor and diminished pulses.
How is V. cholerae treated?
Rehydration with I/V fluid and electrolytes, and glucose solution. antibiotics such as doxycycline, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin may shorten the duration.
How is Vibrio parahemalyticus transmitted and what are the symptoms?
V. parahemolyticus is transmitted by ingestion of undercooked seafood, and is a cause of diarrhea.
How is Vibrio vulnificus transmitted and what are the symptoms?
Direct inoculation of contaminated brackish water causes wound infections(opening oysters), septicemia, ingestion of raw shellfish and gastroenteritis.
Which groups of patients are especially sensitive to V. vulnificus septicemia?
Cirrhotic and immunocompromised patients are very susceptible(>40% mortality rate).