Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/37

Click to flip

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Necessary for immunity ,retinal health,tissue differentiation
Vitamin A
Maintains Ca/ Phos concentrations
Vitamin D
Alpha-tocopherol. Antioxidant and free radical scavenger
Vitamin E
Phylloquinone. Plant origin or made by GI bacterial flora. Cofactor in the genesis of circulatory proteins
Vitamin K
Coenzyme in ATP synthesis. May have additional role in neuronal conduction.
Thiamine
Essential as hydrogen donors/electron acceptors in myriad metabolic reactions
Niacin
Essential in nucleotide synthesis and amino acid metabolism
Folate
Synthesized by microorganisms. Coenzyme essential in CHO and lipid and amino acid metabolism as well as synthesis of purines and pyrimidines.
B12 - Cobalamin
Deficiency results from impaired intestinal absorption or changes in microflora . Atrophic gastritis,pancreatic insufficiency, pernicious anemia . Dietary deficiency rare.
B12 - Cobalamin
Co-enzyme in gluconeogenesis,neurotransmitter synthesis.
B6- pyridoxine.
synthesis by GI flora. Co-enzyme in critical pathways for CHO and lipid metabolism.
Biotin-
role in synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol-derived hormones and the porphyrin ring of heme.
Pantothenic acid-
Antioxidant. Biosynthesis of collagen,bile acids and norepinephrine.
Vitamin C
potentiates insulin action
Chromium-
enzyme component (ferroxidases)
Copper-
incorporation into bony strucures
Fluorine-
integrated into thyroid hormones
Iodine-
concentrated in mitochondria
Manganese-
Molybdenum
enzyme cofactor
Selenium
antioxidant
Role in hemoglobin and myoglobin synthesis.
Essential component for bacterial metabolism.
Iron
Essential component of more than 100 enzymes including DNA/RNA polymerase.
Zinc
-enhances wound closure ,may counter catabolic effects steroid tx, supports immunocompetence.
Vitamin A
Use with caution in patients with hepatic,renal dysfunction or elderly patients.
Vitamin A
needed for collagen formation, improves resistance to infection.
Vitamin C-
Use with caution in patients with renal failure-especially if prone to oxaluria
Vitamin C-
enzyme cofactor needed for cellular replication and collagen formation. Low levels associated with decreased wound strength and delayed healing
Zinc-
in wound healing needed for collagen cross-linking.
B vitamins-thiamin and riboflavin
_______ not recommended for wound healing
Vitamin E
Complication of nutritional support that may result in increased morbidity and mortality.Hallmark is hypophospatemia,hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia due to intracellular shifts
Refeeding syndrome
Necessary for CHO ,protein and fat metabolism,bone matrix,generation of ATP, structural component of RNA/DNA. Low levels can result in cardiac and respiratory failure, osteomalacia,ATN,ileus
PHOSPHOROUS
Essential in DNA replication,cellular metabolism, nerve conduction
low levels associated with neuromuscular excitability,sz,tetany, muscle weakness
MAGNESIUM
Muscle weakness,ileus,cardiac arrhythmias are possible clinical manifestations of low levels.
POTASSIUM
_______ deficiency may be an issue in patients with anorexia nervosa,EtOH abuse.Manifests as heart failure,Wernicke’s encephalopathy
Thiamine
In Refeeding syndrome, "starved heart” characterized by atrophy of cardiac muscle. Intolerance to high fluid and glucose loads. ______ deficiency contributes to cardiomyopathy.
Selenium
most common cause of nutritional anemia, primarily in women due to menses and increased demands of pregnancy. Dietary deficiency common in children.
Iron deficiency
other vitamen causes of anemia
B12 & folate