Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/24

Click to flip

24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is hepatitis A?
It is a non enveloped, single stranded RNA enterovirus. It belongs to Picornaviridae.
What are HAV symptoms?
Vague flu like symptoms. Jaundice and swollen liver is rare, app 10% of the cases. It is not considered oncogenic.
How is HAV transmitted?
Hep. A is spread via the fecal oral route and is also known as infectious hepatitis. It can be spread occasionally by blood or blood products.
How is HAV cultured?
Diagnosis is aided by detection of anti-HAV IgM antibodies produced early in the infection, and by tests to identify HA antigen or virus directly in stool samples.
Is there treatment for HAV?
It is based primarily on immunzation. Harvix is currently approved. An oral vaccine is being studied.
No specific medicine is indicated once symptoms begin. Drinking lots of fluids and avoiding hepatic irritants is strongly recommended.
What is hepatitis E?
It is another RNA virus, and causes a hepatitis similar to that of A. It is transmitted via fecal oral route. There is no vaccine.
What is hep. B virus?
It is an enveloped DNA virus in the family Hepadnoviridae. Intact viruses are called dane viruses.
What are symptoms of Hep. B?
Fever, chills, malaise, anorexia, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea and nausea.
A small number will develop glomerulonephritis and arterial inflammation. Cirrhosis is a possible feature.
The association of HBV with hepatocellular carcinoma is based on some observations. What are they?
1. Certain hepatitis B antigens are found in malignant cells and are often detected as integrated components of the host genome.
2. Persistent carriers of the virus are more likely to develop this cancer.
3. People from areas of the world with a high incidence of hepatitis B, and are more frequently affected by liver cancer.
In general, people with chronic hepatitis are 200 times more likely to develop liver cancer. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What is a delta agent of HBV?
Some patients infected with hepatitis B are coinfected with a particle called the delta agent, also called a hepatitis D virus.
This Delta agent seems to be a defective RNA virus that cannot produce infection unless a cell is also infected with HBV. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Hepatitis D virus invades host cells by borrowing the outer receptors of HBV. When delta agent is present, the disease becomes more severe and is more likely to progress to permanent liver damage.
What is the pathogenesis of Hep. B?
It enters the body through a break in the skin or mucus membrane, or by injection into the bloodstream.
It will reach liver cells where it multiplies and releases viruses into the blood during an incubation period of app 7 weeks.
What is the transmission of Hep. B?
It multiplies exclusively in the liver, which seeds the blood with virions. Studies have revealed up to 10/7 virions per ml of infected blood. ( a millionth of a ml can transmit infection). It is often referred to as serum hepatitis.
HBV remains infective for days in dried blood, for months when stored in serum at room temperature and for decades if frozen. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
List three disinfectants that are considered Anti-Hep B?
Chlorine, Iodine and glutaraldehyde.
How is Hep. B cultured?
Serological tests can detect either virus antigen or antibodies. Radioimmunoassay and Elisa permit detection of the important surface antigen of HBV very early in infection.
Is there a preventitive approach to hep. B?
The most widely used vaccines are recombinent containing the pure surface antigen cloned in yeast cells. vaccines are given in three doses.
Passive immunization with Hep. B immune globulin(HBIG) gives significant immediate protection to people who have been exposed to the virus through needle puncture, broken blood containersetc. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
Chronic infection can be controlled with recombinent human interferon, a drug called adefovir dipivoxil or lamivudine. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What is Hepatitis C?
It is an RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family. It was called at one time the non-A/non-B virus. More than 4 million americans are infected.
Hep C shares many characteristics of hep B, but it is likely to be chronic. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. It is possible to have severe symptoms without permanent liver damage, but it is more common to have chronic liver disease even without symptoms. It is known to be oncogenic.
Can Hep C possess a virulence factor.
The viruses core protein seems to play a role in the suppression of cell mediated immunity as well as in the production of various cytokines.
Is there a treatment for hep. C?
Most include the use of therapeutic interferon, and a more effective derivative of interferon called pegylated interferon.
Some clinicians also prescribe ribavirin to trey to suppress viral multiplication.