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18 Cards in this Set

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Corynebacterium diptheriae
Causative agent of diptheria

G(+), Pleiomorphic, Cat(+), O2(+), non-sporeforming

N' flora of skin & nasopharynx
Corynebacterium diptheriae

(Major virulence factor)
Toxin genes carried on bacteriophage, β-Tox

Expression controlled by Fe availability via DtxR:(↓Host Fe → ↓DtxR action → ↑Toxin)

Inhibit protein syn: Cytotoxin

Classic AB subunit exotoxin:
A(ADP-ribosylase)
Corynebacterium diptheriae

(Pathogenesis)
Reservoir: human N' flora
Transmission: aerosol
Colonize: URT mucosal surface
Local damage & inflammatory response
Corynebacterium diptheriae

(Mortality)
I. Mechanical airway obstruction

II. Systemic toxemia (myocarditis or paralysis)
Corynebacterium diptheriae

(Dx, Tx, & Pvn)
Dx: throat culture on selective medium (tellurite agar)

Tx: 1° α-toxin, 2° α-biotics

Pvn: DPT vaccine (toxoid)
Clostridium tetani
Causative agent of tetanus
"lockjaw"

G(+) rods, spore-forming,
Motile, extremely O2 sensitive
Clostridium tetani

(Major virulence factor)
Tetanospasmin

AB Subunit protein exotoxin
Clostridium tetani

(Tetanospasmin A & B subunits)
B: Binds to gangliosides on CNS neurons


A: Zinc-dependent blocks release of inhibitory neurotransmitters; i.e., spastic paralysis
Clostridium tetani

(Pathogenesis)
Reservoir: H20, soil, N' GI flora

Transmission: injection of spores into deep wound

Systemic spread via nerve fibers, CNS, or bloodstream
Clostridium tetani

(Mortality)
respiratory failure 15-60% fatal w/o treatment
Clostridium tetani

(Dx;, Tx;, Pvn:)
Dx: clinical presentation

Tx: 1° α-toxin (HTIG)
2° valium, respiratory asst., α-biotics

Pvn: DPT toxoid vaccination
Clostridium botulinum
"botox"

Very long rods, slightly alkaline, strict anaerobe
Botulinum toxin

(Action)
Neuron-muscle cell synapse

blocks release of ACH leading to flaccid paralysis
Botulism

(4 types)
Foodborne: (ingest pre-formed toxin) 6-36 hours

Infant: susceptible to those who harbor within their GI "floppy baby syndrome"

Wound: infection

Therapeutic: migraines, cosmetic, spasm, sweating disorders
Botulism

(Tx)
Non-transmittable

Tx: 1° α-toxin (early admin.) α-biotics not helpful as organism need not be present


Mortality: 10-20%
Vibrio cholerae
Causative agent of cholera

Curved, G(-) rods, Mac Conkey growth, polar flagella

O-Ag (outermost part of LPS)
Vibrio cholerae

(Virulence factor)
Flagella, adhesins (TCP Type IV pili), hemagglutinin, colonization factor, neuraminidase

AB subunit protein exotoxin
Vibrio cholerae

(AB subunit)
B: binds to GM1 ganglioside at brush border of epithelial cells of small intestine

A: ADP-ribosyl-transferase

Alters G-protein activation:
↛cAMP → ↑H2O/Cl- excretion ↓Na+ re-absorb.

Explosive hypermotility and copious watery diarrhea