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87 Cards in this Set

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all DNA viruses except what are dsDNA?
parvoviridae (part-of-a-virus)
all DNA viruses are linear except what?
papovaviruses (circular, supercoiled), hepadnaviruses (circular, incomplete)
name 3 naked RNA viruses?
calcivirus, picornavirus, reovirus (naked CPR)
this type of virus acquires envelopes from the nuclear membrane
herpesvirus
most enveloped viruses aquire their envelope from where?
from plasma membrane when they exit from cell
all viruses are haploid except what?
retroviruses, which have 2 identical ssRNA molecules (diploid)
all DNA viruses replicate where? what is the exception?
nucleus - except poxvirus
all RNA viruses replicate where? what are the exceptions?
cytoplasm - except influenza and retroviruses
name the DNA viruses
HHAPPPy viruses: hepadna, herpes, adeno, pox, parvo, papova
this DNA virus carries its own DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
poxvirus
all DNA viruses are icosahedral except what?
pox (complex)
naked DNA viruses (3)
PAP: parvo, adeno, papova
enveloped DNA viruses (3)
HPH: hepadna, pox, herpes
what is the largest DNA virus?
poxvirus
virus causing febrile pharyngitis, pneumonia, conjunctivitis
adenovirus
virus causing aplastic crises in sickle cell disease, fifth disease, hydrops fetalis?
parvovirus
what is the smallest DNA virus?
parvovirus (ss linear)
HBV is a member of what virus family?
hepadnavirus - DNA, partial circular
members of the picornavirus family?
PERCH:
poliovirus
echovirus
rhinovirus
coxsackievirus
HAV
HEV and Norwalk virus belong to what family?
calciviruses - RNA (ss, linear), icosahedral
virus causing roseola (exanthem subitum)
HHV-6
virus related to Kaposi's sarcoma?
HHV-8
what type of virus is JC - causes PML in HIV
papovavirus
type of virus causing Colorado tick fever?
reovirus
number one cause of fatal diarrhea in kids?
rotavirus
togaviruses (3)?
rubella, EEE, WEE
flaviviruses (5)?
HCV, yellow fever, dengue, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile virus
to what family does influenza virus belong?
orthomyxovirus
paramyxoviruses (4)
PaRaMyxovirus:
parainfluenza - croup
RSV
measles
mumps
Rx for RSV bronchiolitis in kids?
ribavirin
what type of virus is rabies?
rhabdovirus
what type of virus is HDV?
deltavirus
MMR, Sabin polio, VZV, yellow fever, smallpox, and adenovirus have what type of vaccine?
live attenuated
rabies, infulenza, HAV, and Salk polio are what type of vaccine?
killed
egg-based vaccines?
FRY an egg:
Flu, MMR, Yellow fever
the vaccine for what is recombinant?
HBV- antigen is recombinant HBsAg
exchange of genes between 2 chromosomes by crossing over within regions of significant base sequence homology
recombination
when viruses with segmented genomoes (e.g. influenza) exchange segments. high-frequency virus recombination; cause of worldwide pandemics
reassortment
when 1 of 2 viruses that infect the cell has a mutation that results in a nonfunctional protein; the nonmutated virus complemetns the mutated one by making a functional protein that serves both viruses
complementation
genome of virus A can be coated with the surface proteins of virus B; type B protein coat determines the infectivity of the phenotypically mixed virus; however, the progeny from this infection has a type A coat and is encoded by type A genetic material
phenotypic mixing
DNA enveloped viruses (3)
herpesvirus, HBV, smallpox
DNA nucleocapsid viruses (3)
adenovirus, papillomaviruses, parvovirus
influenza virus, parainfluenza, RSV, measles, mumps, rubella, rapies, HTLV, and HIV are what type of RNA viruses?
RNA enveloped viruses
enteroviruses (poliovirus, coxsackie virus, echovirus, HAV), rhinovirus, and reovirus are what type of RNA viruses?
RNA nucleocapsid
segmented viruses?
all are RNA viruses: BOAR
bunyaviruses, orhtomyxoviruses, arenaviruses, and reoviruses
all paramyxoviruses have 1 serotype except what?
parainfluenza virus - has 4
parainfluenza, mumps, measles, and RSV all belong to what family?
paramyxoviruses
parotitis, orchitis, and aseptic meningitis?
mumps
bluish-gray spots on buccal mucosa?
Koplik spots - diagnostic for measles
drugs for influenza A?
amantadine and rimantadine (especially prophylaxis)
drugs useful for both influenza A and B?
zanamivir and oseltamivir (neuraminidase inhibitors)
virus with a bullet-shaped capsid?
rabies
how does rabies travel to CNS?
migrates in a retrograde fashion up axons
variant of dengue fever in Southeast Asia?
hemorrhagic shock syndrome
caused by flavivirus, an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitos
yellow fever
high fever, black vomit, jaundice
yellow fever
councilman bodies (acidophilic inclusions) may be seen in liver with this virus
yellow fever
virus causing mono with negative monospot?
CMV
heterophil antibodies detected by agglutination of sheep RBCs?
monospot test
tzanck test
a smear of opened skin vesicle to detect multinucleated giant cells - used to assay for HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV
hepatitis RNA picornavirus
HAV
hepatitis DNA hepadnavirus
HBV
hepatitis RNA flavivirus
HCV
hepatitis delta virus
HDV
hepatitis RNA calcivirus
HEV
how is HAV trasmitted?
fecal-oral
type of hepatitis that is transmitted enterically and causes water-borne epidemics
HEV
defective virus that requires HBsAg as its envelope
HDV
common cause of transfusion-mediated hepatitis
HCV
best test to detect active hepatitis A?
IgM HAVAb
continued presenc of what indicates carrier state of HBV?
HBSAg
provides immunity to HBV
HBsAb
positive during the window period of HBV
HBcAb
HBV vaccination - what serologic marker is seen?
HBsAb only
rectangular nucleocapsid protein of HIV?
p24
HIV envelope proteins?
gp41 and gp120
what crosses placenta in HIV infected mothers
anti-gp120
CXCR1 mutation
rapid progression to AIDS
CCR5 mutation
homozygous - immunity (1% U.S. caucasians)
heterozygous - slower course (20% U.S. caucasians)
infectious agents that don't contain DNA or RNA, just protein
prions
normal prions have what? pathologic prions are what?
normal - alpha helix
pathologic (like CJD) - beta pleated sheets
virus family of HPV?
papovavirus
aseptic meningitis, herpangina - febrile pharyngitis, hand, foot, and mouth disease, myocarditis
coxsackievirus - picornavirus
rotavirus belongs to what family?
reovirus - DS linear segmented RNA
hemorrhagic fever, pneumonia, RDS in NM, AZ, CO, UT
hantavirus - member of bunyavirus family (SS circular RNA; helical capsid)
ebola/marburg are what types of viruses?
filoviruses - SS linear RNA, helical capsid
triad of cutaneous hemorrhages, deafness, and periventricular CNS calcifications in a neonate
congenital CMV infection