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32 Cards in this Set

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Anabolism
All synthesis reactions in a living organism; the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones
Antibiotic
An antimicrobial agent, usually produced naturally by a bacterium or fungus
Antisepsis
A chemical method for disinfection of the skin or mucous membranes; the chemical is called an antiseptic
ATP
adenosine triphosphate - an important intracellular energy source
Autoclave
equipment for sterilization by steam under pressure, usally operated at 15 psi and 121 C
Bacteriocidal
A description of an agent that kills bacteria.
Bacteriostatic
A description of an agent that stops the growth (reproduction) of bacteria, but does NOT kill them.
Binary fission
Prokaryotic cell reproduction by division into two daughter cells
Budding
asexual reproduction beginning as a protuberance from the parent cell that grows to become a daughter cell (2) release of an enveloped virus through the plasma membrane of an animal cell
Buffer
A substance that tends to stabilize the pH of a solution
Catabolism
all decomposition reactions in a living organism; the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones
Chemoautotroph
An organism that uses an inorganic chemical as an energy source and carbon dioxide as its carbon source
Chemoheterotroph
An organism that uses organic molecules as a source of carbon and energy
Ethylene oxide
A disinfectant and an intermediate product in the production of various chemicals
Facultative anaerobe
an organism that can grow with or without molecular oxygen
Fermentation
the enzymatic degradation of carbohydrates in which the final electron acceptor is an organic molecule, ATP is synthesized by substrate-level phosphorylation, and O2 is not required
Glycolysis
The main pathway for the oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid; also called Embden-Meyerhof pathway
Halophile
archaebacteria requiring a salt-rich environment for growth and survival
Helminth
a parasitic roundworm or flatworm
Hypertonic
A solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than an isotonic solution
Hypotonic/hypertonic
A solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than an isotonic solution
Kirby-Bauer test
disk-diffusion method
Krebs cycle
a pathway that converts 2-carbon compounds to CO2, transferring electrons to NAD and other carriers; also called tricarboxylic acid or critic acid cycle
Mitosis
a eukaryotic cell replication process in which the chromosomes are duplicated; usually followed by division of the cytoplasm of the cell
Obligate
Restricted to a particular set of environmental conditions
Organic acids
Group of organic compounds containing the carboxylic group -C(O)OH, formed by the oxidation of aldehydes
Oxygenic phototroph
Producing oxygen, as in plant and cyanobacterial photosynthesis
Pasteurization
the process of mild heating to kill particular spoilage microorganisms or pathogens
Photoautotroph
An organism that uses light as its energy source and carbon dioxide as its carbon source
Photoheterotroph
An organism that uses light as its energy source and an organic carbon source
Psychrophile
an organism that grows best at about 15 C and does not grow above 20 C; a cold-loving microbe
Thermophile
an organism whose optimal growth temp is between 50 C and 60 C; a heat loving microbe