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33 Cards in this Set

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pathogenic
disease-producing
germ
rapidly growing cell
microbes/microorganisms
minute living things that are individually usually too small to be seen with the unaided eye
photosynthesis
food and oxygen-generating process that is critical to life on earth
nomenclature
Genus, specific epithet
defining characteristics:
bacteria
-prokaryotic
-peptidoglycan in cell walls
prokaryotic
genetic material is not enclosed in a nucleus/nuclear membrane
defining characteristics:
archaea
-prokaryotic
-lack peptidoglycan
defining characteristics:
fungi
-eukaryotes
-unicellular or multicellular
defining characteristics:
protozoa
-unicellular
-eukaryotic
-move (mobile)
defining characteristics:
algae
-eukaryotic
-photosynthesis
defining characteristics:
viruses
-acellular
-inert outside of living hosts
defining characteristics:
multicellular animal parasites
-eukaryotic
-also depend on a host
classification of microorganisms:
three domains
based on cellular organization

-bacteria (peptidoglycan)
-archaea (no peptidoglycan)
-eukarya (protists, fungi, plants, animals)
eukaryotic
have cells with nuclei containing dna
cell theory
all living things are made up of cells
-explain the observations made by hooke
looked at a cork through a microscope and found that all living things were made of cells
-explain the observations made by leeuwenhoek
first observed the microbes in rain, his teeth, and his feces. he had the microscopic technology for it.
spontaneous generation
the hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving matter. a "vital force" is necessary.
-identify contributions by Needham
found that even after he heated nutrient fluids, the cooled solutions contained microbes. he claimed microbes develop spontaneously from the fluids. "vital force" necessary.
-identify contributions by Spallanazi
nutrient fluids heated after being sealed in a flask did not develop microbes
-identify contributions by Virchow
concept of biogenesis
(living cells can arise only from preexisting living cells)
-identify contributions by Pasteur
determined that microorganisms are present in the air and can contaminate sterile solutions, but air itself does not create microbes.

s-necked flasks trapped airborne microbes.

microbes can be oresent on solids, liquids, & air (non-living matter)

basis of aseptic techniques: microbes can be killed by heating & blocking airborne microbes from nutrient environments.
biogenesis
living cells can arise only from preexisting living cells
aseptic techniques
prevent contamination by unwanted microbes
-identify the importance of Koch's postulates
we use Koch's postulates to this day in order to determine the causes of diseases and the effects of bacteria
-explain how Pasteur's work influenced Lister & Koch
Lister, a surgeon, applied germ theory to surgery. he used phenol (carbolic acid) on surgical wounds to kill the microbes.

Koch discovered anthrax and established experimental steps for directly relating a microbe to a disease.
-identify the importance of Jenner
created a vaccine for smallpox using the milder illness cowpox
fermentation
yeast converts sugar to alcohol in the absence of air.

in the presence of air, bacteria turns alcohol into vinegar (acetic acid), which is sour

(pasteur's discovery)
pasteurization
application of high heat for a short time, to kill bacteria
germ theory of disease
microbes cause disease in plants and animals like they do to nonliving organic materials.
Koch's postulates
1. animal dies (observe)
2. culture and identify bacteria (purify sample)
3. inject samples onto healthy animals (test)
4. compare blood cultures and bacteria (confirm)
immunity
protection from the disease (by vaccination or the disease itself)