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196 Cards in this Set

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what are the 4 gram-postive Spore-forming bacilli discused?
Bacillus Anthracis,Clostidium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, clostridium botulinum
What are the main charactoristics of Bacillus anthracis
Large Cells, Aerobic(air loving) found in huffed mamals.
What is the main carrier of bacillus Anthracis
Birds.
What are the 3 forms of transmission of Anthrax
Cutanious (enters skin)
Pulmonary (inhailation of spore)
Intestinal (eaten) 100%fatal.
What are the treatments for anthrax
Penacillin or tetracycline
What are the main charectoristics of Clostrdium Perfringens
Anaerobic(hates air) spores found in soil, found in human intestine, skin.
What is the main symptoms of Clostridium perfringens?
Anaerobic cellulitis (mild swelling no alpha toxin) Gas Gangrene jagged cut/wound or dead tissue +alpha toxins.
what is the main form of transmission for Clostridium perfringens?
spores infected into dead skin(anerobic)
What are the treatments for Clostridium
Removel of dead skin, amputation hyperbaric oxgen, cephalosporin and penacillan
What is the main control of Clostridium pefringens
Rapid cleaning of would, surgical repair.
What group of people are at a higher risk from Clostridium perfringens
Diabetics
What is the main charactoristics of Clostrdium Tetani
causes Tetnis, Anaerobic, found in soul(common)
What are the main symptoms of Clostridium tetani?
Involuntary contraction of skelital muscles(lock jaw) nero toxin causes dead(diaphram)
What is the mode of transmission for Clostrdium tetani?
Deep puncture wound, deep spliters of thorns.
What is the treatment for Tetani
tetnis immune globulin anti toxin
What is the mode of control for Clostrdium tetani?
DPT, TD shots, (vaccine)
what are the main charactoristics of Clostridium botulinum
causes botulism (type of food poisoning) Anerobic 8 spore types
What are the worst spore types for clostridium botulinum
A, B, E are the worst type E is beta toxin, A,B are Alpha toxin.
What are the symptoms of Botulinum
blocks acetylcholine(nero transmitor) show symptoms in 12-72hrs
What is the treatment for botulism
trivalant horse anti-toxin(kill toxin) Gastrick washing.
What is the control for botulism
Boil food(denature toxin wont kill spore)
Presure cook foods(kills spore)
Vaccine(not used offen)
What are the 2 Gram-positive non-spore-forming bacilla studied in outline #3
Listeria monocytogenes
Lactobacillus spp
What is a source of Listeria moncytogenes
Aged cheese
What does Monocytogenes cause
Listeriosis (reporatory trac infection)
What are the symptoms of Listeria monocytogenes
diareaha (mild) high fever)
What are the forms of transmission for Listeria monocytogens
can cross plancenta causes premature birth or death of fetus, main sorce is food poisioning(aged cheese)
what are the 2 treatments for Listeria monocytogenes
amphicillin, and let it run its course(natural recovery)
What is the control for moncytogenes?
Care with food production, pasterization, cooking foods.
what are the main charactoristics of lactobacillus spp
normal flora in mouth, high acid producer(from the breakdown of carbohydrate)
what symptoms does lactobacillius cause
dental carries(cavities) from build up of plaque
What is the mode of transmission for lactobacillus spp
its oppertunistic(normal flora)
What is the treatment for lactobacillus spp
fill or pull tooth, removel of plague
What is the control for lactobacillus spp
good dental hygene(bush teeth)
What are the 2 Gram-Positive Irregulgular non-spore-forming bacilli listed is outline#3
Corybacterium diptheriae

Propionbacterium acnes
What are the main charactoristics of propionibacterium acnes
cause Acne (vulgaris lesions)Facultative anaerobic. normal flora (hormonal link)
What are the symptoms of propionibacterium acnes
pimples (bacteria enters open pores get cloged with oil creating a anerobic environment which allows bacteria to grow best (anaerobic)
What is are the main charactoristics of Corynebacterium diptheriae
Diplo arangment causes diptheriae (diptherio toxin)
club shape. may not stain consistently(irregular)
What are the symptoms of diptheriae
Diptherio toxin, effects lungs heat nerve cells. toxin inhibits protien synthesis results in fever,soar throat, vommiting, enlargement of lymph glands, psudo membrane lungs/trachea/brochial tubes
What is the main mode of transmission for diptheriae
airsols(main) body fluid(vommit) contaminated milk
What is the treatment for diptheriae
Penacillin(distroy cell) in conjunction with diptheriae anti toxin.(kill toxin)
What is the control for diptheriae
DPT, and DT shots
what are the 2 Acid fast, weak gram positive bacilli listed in outline#3
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium leprae
What are the main charactoristics of Tuberculosis
Causes slime layer in lungs, aerobic, slow growing 48hrs(doubling time)
What is the primary stage of tuberculosis
1. Primary stage, initial infection results in formation of tubercules(holes lungs)
What stage come after the primary stage (tuberculosis)
Either dormant of active stage
What is the dormant stage of tuberculosis
Tubecules are encased by immune system.
What is the active stage of tuberculosis
Actively growing, violent coff, low fever weight loss, lossing lung mass, slow asfixiation
What is the diseminated stage of tuberculosis
spread to other organs, bones, fatal.
What is the main mode of transmission for tuberculosis
aerisols, 20-30 cells for transmission
What is the treatment for tuberculosis
Treat quickly(diagnose) Penacillan, amphicillin, any antibiotic (rotated) good diet,less stress oxigen.
What is the control for tuberculosis
Vaccine, regular TB test.
What is the control for tuberculosis
vaccine, regular TB testing
What is the main charactoristic for mycobacterium leprae
Causes lepraecey, likes tempature around 36deg, effects fingers,ears,and toes initialy 72hr doubling time.
What are the 2 forms of lepraecey
tuberculoid form, small legions very shallow(6 months, very slow healing

Lepromatus lepracy deep severe legions muscles/bones causes nerve damage, nodgles skin(bumps) sensory loss, and inhibbits T-cell response
What is the mode of transmisson of lepraecey
dirrect contact
What is the treatment for lepraecey
fast rapid treatment, rotation of antibiotic rotation of antibiotics, ritampin,dapsone, penacillin, erythromicin, amphocillin
What is the control for lepraecey
Inate immunity, trial vaccine, issolation(leprae collonies)
what are the main charactoristics of the family enterobacteriaceae
Gram-Negative Aerobic bacilli oxidase negative.
What is the main charactoristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
common nausocomial(healh care offices) infection. Very motile, very fast growing, common in burn woulds(prevents healing)
What are the symptoms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pnumonia, unrinary track infection, Puss(bluish) florecent, odor like crushed grapes, hard to kill
What is the main form of transmission of aeruginosa
Aerisol, dirrect contact.
What is the treatment for aeruginosa
cephalosporins. (no good antibacteria)
what is the control for aruginosa
Good anticeptic practices
What are the main charactoristics for Brucella abortis
Causes Bangs disease or Brucellosis. Small in size found in huff mamals blood vestles rupture liver, spleen and kidney
What are the syptoms of Brucella abortis
Causes spontanious abortions(miscarages) huff manals. Mild fever, headache,chills not life threatening(most cases)
What is the main mode of transmission of Brucella abortus
contact with body fluid of infected animal
What is the treatment for Brucella abortus
Tetracycline with streptomycin
What is the control for Brucella abortus
Quarenteen animals, pasterization, Vaccine (animals) distroy infected animals
What is the main charactoristic for Bordetella pertussis
Causes pertussis (whooping coff) Lives on blood(partialy) short lived, common childhood infection
What are the 2 stages of pertussis
Stage1. mild coff, runny nose, and sneezing 1-2 weeks

stage2. coff progress to violent(involuntary) weezing, fatigue and immune supression(can cause other infections resulting in death)
What is the mode of transmission for pertusis
aerisols
what is the treatment for pertusis
Erythromycin, penacillin, oxigen
what is the control for pertusis
DPT shots
When where DPT, td,DT, and DTaP vaccines established
eary 1940's in seperated form, combined in 1950's
What is the sequence of DPT shots
Serious of 3 first 3 months
1yo
5yo
10yo
15yo TD give to control cost
every 10 years after
what is the main charactoristics of legionella pneumophila
causes legionaires disease, prefer standing water, heat tolerant.
What symptoms does legionaires disease cause
High fever, pneumonia,
What is the mode of transmission of legionaires disease
aerisols, yesr past common nasocimial infection(heating/cooling system in hospitals)
What is the treatment for legionaires disease
erythromycin
What is the control for for ligionaries disease
eliminate standing water, drain evaporative cooler, pool
What is the main charactoristics of E-coli
150 strains, part of normal flora of human intestine, us familiar strains cause intestinal problems
What are the symptoms of E-coli
Diareaha, high fluid loss (dehydration) #1 cause of infant death dehydration)
What is the mode of transmission of E-coli
Fecal oral route
What is the treatment for E-coli
replace fluids, penacillin(extreme cases)
What is the control for E-coli
Good sanitation, cook foods, filter, chlorinate water.
what is the main charactoristic of klebsiella pneumoiae
Very large capsule(hard for t-cell to attack) common nonsocomial infection
What are the syptoms of Klebsiella pneumoniae
Cause, pneumonia, menigitis, urinary trac infection, blood infection
What is the modeo of transmission for Klebsiella pneumoniae
aerisol and any dirrect contract.
What is the treatment for Klebsiella pneumoniae
Penacillin
what is the control for Klebsiella pneumoniae
good anticeptic practices
What are the main charactoristics for Salmonella typhi
Causes typhold fever. drink 10k+ bacteria cell to cause infection, microbes attach to small intestine. Microbes reproduce inside t-cell
What are the symptoms of Salmonella typhi
High fever 104+ diareha, abdominal pain, vommiting 2-3 weeks mortality rate 10% 3% of survivors become carriers.
What is the main mode of tranmision for Salmonella typhi
fecal oral route(from water)
What is the treatment for Salmonella typhi
Replace fluids, Chloramphenicals(medication)
What is the control for Salmonella typhi
vaccine, good sanitation, removal of gallblader of carriers
what is the main charactoristics of Salmonella enteritidis
salmonella food poisoning/gasteoenteritis takes 24-36 hours to mature
What are the symptoms of Salmonella enteritidis
fever, nausia, diareha, abdominal pain, dehydration, can last 2-5 days(full recovery)
What is the treatment for Salmonella enteritidis
replace fluids(dehydration)
What is the control for Salmonella enteritidis
cook food, pasterization, good sanitation
What is the main charactoristics for Shigella spp.
Bacillary dysentary or shigellosis, 4 strains dystentary most dangerious
boydii
sonnei
flexeri most common lest dangerious
cause diareha, abdominal cramps, bloody stool(black)
What is the mode of transmission of shigella
fecal oral route.
What is the treatment for shigella
Penacillin, replace fluids
What is the control for Shigella
Cook pasturize food, good sanitation
What is the main charactoristics of Yersinia pestis
Stains Red darker red @poles causes bubonic plague, shows bipolar stain. has capsules, coagulase murine toxin distroys tissue
What are the 1st stage of Bubonic plague
1. Sylvatic plauge, passed from animal to animal in nature, mice, rats, rabbits, squarles, passed by fleas
what is the 2nd stage of bubonic plague
Urban plague, crossed over to domesticated animals(pets)
What is the 3rd stage of bubonic plague
Human plague, flea bites human(2-5 cells cause infection) bite turns red with blue outside. clogs organs, lyphatic system causes big legions called bubos bleeding(internal/external cases deat
What is the 4th stage of bubonic plague
Pneumonic stage reaches lungs from progressive stage 3, then spred by aerisols and not fleas. 100% fatal
What are the modes of transmission for bubonic plague
flea bite, Stage 4 aerisols
What is the treatment for bobonic plague
Fast treatment, streptomycin and tetracycline
what is the control for bubonic plague
vaccine, insect repellent(DEET) dont kill rodents(blood supply for fleas wont spred to stage 2)
What in the main charactoristics of Haemophilus influenzae
Gram-negative aerobic oxidase positive. blood loving, oval shaped capsule. common in children, types a,b,c,d,e,f type B is the most serious
What are the symptoms of Haemophilus influenzae
Start in sinus's. spread to ears, spred to lungs, causes pnuemonia, fever, vommiting, death rate 30% can cause acute bacterial meningitis 90%fatal
What is the mode of transmission of Haemophilus influenzae
Aerisols
what is the treatment for Haemophilus influenzae
amphicillin with chroramphenicol
What is the control for Haemophilus influenzae
Type 13 HIB vaccine poor
What are main charactoristics of Eikenella corrodens
gram-negative bacilli. cause gingivitis infection(gums) slightly hemolitic, normal flora in mouth
What are the symptoms of Eikenella corrodens
over grows, causes tedernous, cellular swelling
Whats the transmission of Eikenella corrodens
Opertunistic(nomral flora)
What is the treatment for Eikenella corrodens
Good dental hygene(brush floss)
What are the 3 Spirochetes listed in outline#3
Treponema pallidum, treponema vincentii
borrelia burgdorferi
what is the main charactoristics of Treponema pallidum
causes syphillus yaws long skinny stains
What is the first stage of syphellus
Primary stage, cancres (soars) on genitals
what is the second stage of syphillus
Dormant or latent but still infected 50%may fall into this stage
what is the 3rd stage of syphillus
mild rash, fever, still transmitable. 50% fall into this stage after primary
What is the 4th stage of sypiillus
tertiary stage 30% progress from 2nd stage. deteriates brain/spinal cord memory loss, insainity, and cause gummas (large soars) 5-6 years will cause death brain damage.
What is the mode of transmission of syphillus
sexual, and congenital causes miscarage/spontaious abortion
what is the treatment for syphillus
Penacillin
What is the control for syphillus
avoid sexual contact with infected, tracking sex parners/history reporting and control of infection
What is the main charactoristics of Treponema vincentii
Causes acute ulcerative Gingivitis (trench mouth)
spiralcute, normal flora
what are the symptoms of Vincentii
over growing causes decay of gums, bleeding gums, pain and tooth loss.
What is the transmission of Vincentii
opertunitisic
what is the treatment for Vincentii
good dental hygene broad specrum antibiotic penacillin
What is the main charactoristic of Borrelia Burdorferi
causes lime disease(ticks)
large spriralcutes with flagella very motile found in deep wooded areas
what is the main mode of tranmission of lime disease
bites(ticks)
what is the treatment for lime disease
tetricycline
What is the control for lime disease
insect repellent (deet) protective clothing
what are the 3 curiform-gram-negative bacteria listed in outline#3
Vibro cholerae
helicobacter pylori
campylobacter jejuni
What is the main charactoristic of Vibrio cholera
cause cholera strain #01 in humans, single flagella, fairly motile. requires 10,000,000,00 (10_8th) cells to be ingested. cells penitrate membranes of small intestine and multiply. takes 3-6 hours to show symptoms.
What are the symptoms of Vibro Cholerae
diareaha and vommiting, rapid dehydration 1liter an hour
What is main mode of transmission for cholera
contaminated water, 55% die with in 48hrs of injection of bacteria, fecal oral route in water
What is the treatment for cholerea
Replace fluids tetracycline & sulfa drugs
what is the control for cholera
vaccination and good sanitation, fecal oral route
What is the main charactoristics of Helicobater pylori
Causes gastro interistis(small intestine) Stomach ulcers acid resistent.
What are the main symptoms of Helicobater pylori
cause ulcers, linked to stomach canser/weight loss
What is the mode of transmission for Helicobater pylori
fecal oral. or oral to oral.
what is the treatment for Helicobater pylori
Zantac (acid reducer) clarithromycin (kill bacteria)
what is the control for for helicobater pylori
diet reduce spicy foods/alchol intake
what are the main charactoristics of Campylobacter jejuni
Cause gastrointeritis (stomach) gull shapesd bacteria (diplovibro likes high co2 levels which lowers h20 micro aerophillic
What are the symptoms of Campylobacter jejuni
fever, diareaha, abdominal pain.
What is the main mode of transmission for Campylobacter jejuni
food poisioning (ingestion of infected food-dairy)
What is the treatment for Campylobacter jejuni
erythromycin. let it run its course
what is the control for Campylobacter jejuni
pasterization, cooking foods. good sanitation
What is the main charactoristics of Rickettsiaceae
stain negative. Zoonotic needs atp spread by animals ticks obligate parasites.
What are the main characteristics of Rickettsia prowazakii
Small. less than a micron in size cause epidemic typus (common in tropical area)
What are the symptoms of Rickettsia prowazakii
14day duration for syptoms, fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, posible rash(limbs) infects kidneys low urin output kidney shutdown causing death.
what is the mode of tranmission of Rickettsia prowazakii
spread by fecal material of lice into bite wounds/scratching
what is the treatment for Rickettsia prowazakii
tetricycline, chlorumphenical
what is the control for Rickettsia prowazakii
vaccine, insect repellent
What are the main charactoristics of Rickettsia rickettsii
Causes rocky mt spotted fever, 40day incubation period
What are the symptoms of rocky mt spotted fever
fever, spotted rash, chills, headache, muscle pain, internal organ damage in the heart central nevrious system
What is the mode of tranmission for Spotten fever
tick bites
what is the treatment for spotted fever
tetricycline
What is the control for spotted fever
vaccine, insect repellent
what are the main charactoristics for Coxiella burnetii
causes Q-fever
What are the symptoms of Coxiella burnetii
fever, may infect liver, heat, lungs
what is the treatment for Coxiella burnetii
tetricycline
what is the mode of transmission for Burnetii
tick bite to animals(initially)
what is the control for burnetii
vaccine, pasterization, insect repellent.
What is the main charactoristics of Bartonella(Rochalimaea) quintana
causes trench fever
What are the symptoms of trench fever
5 to 6 days fever, headache, chills, lower leg pain, possible rash
what is the mode of transmission for Quintana
lice fecal material in bite wound
What is the treatment for Quintana
tetricycline, ride it out and become infected again (reocurring)
What is the control for Quintana
insect repellent
What are the main charactoristics of the Chlamydiaceae family
Very small bacteria, 0.2-0.4 micron in size obligate intercelluar parisites(cant produce atp)
what are the 3 forms of clamydia
Trachomia membrane in the eye causes cellular swelling crusting of eye #cause of child blindness.
2. urethritis sexual transmitted puss dischange burning sensation(urination)
3 lyphogranuloma venereum causes lyph nodes to become granular(sexually transmitted)
What is the percetage of americans (adults) have clamydia
10%(adults) 70% of infected dont know they have it, females are A-symtomatic (show no symptoms but are carriers.
How is clamydia transmited
Congenital(birthing process) sexual transmitted, and fomites(infected objects towels clothing ect)
what is the treatment for clamydia
tetricycline
what is the control for clamydia
sexual discreation, pre birth testing, sliver nitrate eye drops, good hygene wash towels.
What are the main charactoristics of the Mycoplama group
no cell wall stain red. very small in size
what are the main charactoristics of Mycoplasma pneumonia
Normal flora, filimentus cocci, causes typical pneumonia 9-12 weeks for infection slow development to chronic stage lasts weeks.
What are the symptoms of Mycoplasma pneumonia
re-occuring
what is the mode of transmission for Mycoplasma pneumonia
aerisols associated with over crouded areas.
What is the treatment for Mycoplasma pneumonia
tetricycline with erythromycin
What is the control for Mycoplasma pneumonia
most humans have born immunity
What are the main charactoristics of Mycoplasma hominis
causes pelvic inflamation disease primarily in females
What are the symptoms of Mycoplasma hominis
ureatheritis(pelvic organs)
What is the mode of transmission for Mycoplasma hominis
sexual transmission or mother to child(congential)
What is the treatment for Mycoplasma hominis
self contrained, sever cases tetricyline
what is the control Mycoplasma hominis
avoid sexual contact
What are the main charactoristics of Ureaplasma urealyticum
causes pelvic inflamitory primarily males
What are the symptoms of Ureaplasma urealyticum
infection of ureathra bladder, kidneys, prostate, causes cellulitis where infected
what is the main mode of transmission for Ureaplasma urealyticum
can cross placenta causes miscarriges, sexual trasnmitted,
what is the treatment for Ureaplasma urealyticum
mostly self limiting tetricycline(extreme caese)
what is the control for Ureaplasma urealyticum
avoid sexual contact