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27 Cards in this Set

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virus fact

a non-replicating virus particle that shows no sign of life
Virons
viruses are classified by
host range
size
strucure
life cycle
virus classifications

structure
nucleic acid core

capsid - protein coat surronding the core

envelope- surrounding membrane - notfound on all viruses

spikes - protein structure protruding from the envelope -
not on all viruses have these, they are essential for attaching to the host cell.
The protein coat around the nucelic acid is made up of subunits called
capsomeres
it stores genetic information in both DNA and RNA forms that may be circular or linear
Viruses unique
ssRNA directly translated by host ribosome is the plus strand.
it is acually mRNA.

Complementary ssRNA is the minus strand.
Once it enters the host cell it will be converted to mRNA (plus strand)
Life Cycle of Virus - 5 steps
absorption - attachment of virion to host cell

penetration - viral genome enters host

uncoating - removal of capsid and evelope

maturation - reassembly of new virons

release - exiting of new virus particles
Retroviruses
retro - latin word - backward

plstt-straned RNA viruses that uses RNA as a template to make DNA

Use and enzyme called reverse transcriptase
HIV
Intergrates the circular dsDNA into the host chromosome. This does not always happpen at the same site in the genome.

This intergrated copy of DNA is called provirus. Which can be replicated along with the host DNA.

Proviral DNA can also be transcribed and the resulting mRNA translated into viral proteins.
Influenza
three types a, b, c

a - responsible for pandemics

the difference is in capsid proteins

HA and NA

Hemagglutinin - used for attachment to host

Neuramindase - Enzyme that breaks down sialic acid; effecs the release of virion from surface of host cell
Viral Infections
cytopathic affects (CPEs)-
Altered microscopic appearence
-Inclusion body
-Syncytia- function of mutiple host cells into single large cells with multiple nuclei.

Oncogenic - Animal viruses that alter the host cell genetic material; leads to cancer.

end of chapter 6
chapter 8

Metabolism functions
Catabolism - Degrading macromolecule into smaller molecules; release of energy of ATP (or heat)

Anabolism - Assembly of small molecules into macromolecules; consumption of energy required
Enzymes
Most are protein; may require a cofactor

Unique characteristics -
Shape, specificity, function

Biological catalyts
-specific for a chemical reaction; not used up or altered in that reaction; can be recycled

Enzymes are coded by genes

An enzyme specifcity is dependent on its 3-D shape (tertiary form)

Enzymes speed up reactions without increasing temparture.

structure- cofactors or either inorganic (metal ions) or organic (vitamins)

if organic it is called coenzyme.

enzymes act as substrates by binding at the active site.
a loss of 3-D shape

it is irreversible once it is cooked its cooked
Denaturation
Two classes of inhibitors
Competitive - fill the active site and compete with the normal substrate (ex. sulfanilmide)

see picture
Noncompetitive - interact with another site on the enzyme which causes a change in the 3-D shape (examle) feedback inhibtion - also called end production inhibtion)
A series of enzymes make a product that inhibits the first enzyme in the series.
the loss and gain of an electrion is
oxidation - loss
reduction - gain
Redox in biological systems
this is a dehydrogenation reaction.
Electron shuttles
compounds serves NAD FAD
Phosphorylation of ADP
it can occur in 3 ways
Substrate - level phosporylation

Oxidative phosphorylaton (chemiosmosis)

photophosphorylation (only found in certain organisms) photosynthetic cells
Aerobic Respiration
A series of enzyme respriation
glycolysis
TCA - kreb cycle
Electrion transport chain

Converst glucose to CO2

Oxygen serves as final acceptor of electron/hydrogen

Makes lots of ATP
Glycolysis
The oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid

Generates NADH as well as ATP

Glycolysis is the first stepin both respiration and fermentation.
Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
During this cycle acetyl Co-A is oxidized form CO2

Net: ATP NADH FADH2 and CO2
Electron Transport Chain
Major source of ATP

oxidative phosphoralative stake
ETC carriers
Oxidative phosphorlation stage
ATP synthase uses chemiosmosis to pull hydrogen back into cell for energy to make ATP
Fermentation
Does not require oxygen

Uses and organic molecule as the final elecron acceptor (instead of O)

Types of fermentation
alcohol
mixed acid
lactid acid - homolactic produces lactic acid only
and heterolactic produces lactic acid and acetic acid
Interdependency
Catabolic reactions provide building blocks for anabolic reactions

ATP synthesis achieved during catabolism

Anabolic reactions require input of ATP

ATP is broken down during anabolism
Amphibolism
the intergration of catabolism and anabolism to impove cell efficiency

end of chapter 8