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98 Cards in this Set

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Define metabolism.
The total of all chemical reactions that take place in a cell or microbe.
Define anabolism.
the chemical reactions of metabolism involved in the synthesis of new compounds. (putting together)
Define catabolism.
The chimical reactions of metabolism involved in breaking down of complex molecules into simpler ones.(taking apart)
Give an example of a catabolic reaction.
Glycolysis-the breaking down of glucose into pyruvic acid.
Give an example of an anabolic reaction.
The Calvin-Benson cycle-the formation of glucose from carbon dioxide.
Define activation energy.
Minimal energy raquired to start a chemical reaction.
Define endergonic.
a reaction that requires energy to occur.
Define exergonic.
a reaction that gives off energy.
What is an enzyme?
biological catalysts that reduce activation energy so reactions can occur at temps compatable with life.
What is are active sites?
Areas on all enzymes where substrates attach during reactions.
Define lock-and-key mechanism.
The theory that only one substrate fits with one enzyme the same as a unique key is required to open a certain lock.
What are allosteric sites?
Areas on enzymes where molecules other than substrates attach.
Define a simple enzymes.
proteins with catalytic activity. They help break things down. Usually digestive.
Define complex enzyme.
inactive protein plus its cofactor.
The inactive protein part of the complex enzyme is known as what?
apoenzyme
The non protein portion of the complex enzyme, metallic ion derived from vitamins or the trace elements, or a coenzyme are called.
cofactors
What do we call an organic cofactor?
coenzyme
What is another name for a complete enzyme containing both the apoenzyme and the coenzyme?
holoenzyme
What are competitive inhibitors?
chemical that bind to active sites not allowing the substrate to bind with the enzyme there by inhibiting the reaction.
What are noncompetitive inhibitors?
chemicals that bind to allosteric sites or cofactor there by inhibiting the reaction.
A series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell, catalyzed by enzymes is called a ___________ .
metabolic pathway
Excessive end product combining with allosteric sites on first enzyme in a metabolic pathway is known as _________ .
feedback inhibition
What are the two ways enzymes are named?
Enzymes are either named for the reaction they catalyze or the substrate that they combine with.
What is an exoenzymes?
Enzymes that are secreted into the environment for digestive purposes.
Define endoenzyme.
Enzymes that function inside of the microbe these make the majority of the enzymes produced by microbes.
Give five factors effecting the activity of enzymes.
1)pH 2)concentration of substrate 3)competitive inhibitors 4)noncompetitive inhibitors 5)temperature
What is the most common ending for the names of enzymes?
-ase
______, _______ and ________ are three external energy used by microbes.
Oxidation of organic molecules, oxidation of inorganic molecules and sunlight
What kind of organism uses the oxidation of inorganic molecules as an external energy source?
An autotroph.
Which orhanism oxidizes organic molecules for energy?
Hetertrophs.
Phototrophs use ________ as ther external energy source.
sunlight
An enzyme is said to be ________ when it loses it's shape and becomes useless.
denatured
At what temperature do most enzymes become denatured?
70 degrees celciius
What is substrate phosphorylation?
The removal of high energy bond directly from substrate to ADP to form ATP.
The synthesis of ATP from ADP by adding a second high energy bond and a phosphate group is _________ .
phosphorylation
ATP stands for
Adenosine Triphosate
Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
In the electron transport system.
What % of ATP produced in respiration is produced by oxidative phosphorylation?
90%
A chain of oxidation reduction reactions that produce ATP during respiration is known as the
Electron Transport System
What molecule is known as the energy currency of cells?
ATP
Where is the ETS found in eukaryotic cells?
On the cristea of the mitochondria.
The ETS is occurs where in the prokaryotic cell?
On the inner wall of the plasma membrane.
________ is the process by which organic molecules are broken down using ETS.
Respiration
The pathway that breaks down organic molecules without using an ETS is _________ .
Fermentation
What molecules is considered the hub of fermentation?
Pyruvic acid
Respiration is always anaerobic. True or False?
False
Respiration is always aerobic.
True or False?
False
Fermenation is typically _______, meaning it usually doesn't use oxygen.
anaerobic
Respiration uses both _____ and _____ phosphorylation where as fermentation only uses _________.
Subsrate, oxidative, substrate
In respiration one glucose molecule yeilds how many more ATP than in fermentation?
36 more ATP are produced.
How many ATP are produced in fermentation from one glucose molecule?
2ATP
Which of the final products of respiration are organic molecules?
None- all products of respiration are inorganic.
What are the products of respiration other that ATP?
Water and carbon dioxide
What are the most common products of fermentation?
Acids and Alcohols
______ and _______ are two practical application of fermentation of glucose by yeasts.
Brewing and baking
What are the reactants of the transition reaction?
Pyruvic acid
What are the products of the transition reaction?
Acetyl Coa
After the transition reaction where do the Acetyl Coa go and for what reaction.
They travel to the matrix of the mitochondria and are used in the Kreb's Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
What are the products of glycolysis?
2pyruvic acid molecules per one molecule of glucose.
How many ATP are given off in glycolysis form Substrate phosphorylation of a single glucose molecule?
2 ATP - same as fermentation
What is/are the terminal acceptor in the ETS in anaerobic respiration?
inorganic molecules such as NO3, SO4, CO3,
What is/are the terminal acceptor in the ETS in aerobic respiration?
oxygen
_____ ATP are produce from every NADH+H entering the ETS but only ______ are from FADH2-.
3, 2
Glycolysis produce how many NADH+H per glucose molecule?
2
2Carbon dioxide molecules, 3NADH+H, 1FADH2-, and 1 ATP from substrate phosphorylation are the products of what reaction?
The Kreb's Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle
What is the net energy gain from one gluecose molecule in the Kreb's cycle?
24 ATPs
What is the net energy gain from glycolysis?
8 ATPs
What is the energy gain from the transition reaction from substrate phosphorylation.
none
What are the products of the transition reaction from one glucose molecule?
2 Acetyl Coa, 2NADH+H, 2 carbon dioxide molecules.
If the transition reaction produces 2 NADH+H what will be the ATP produced by the ETS?
6 ATP
What is/are the reactant in glycolysis?
glucose
What is Chemiosmosis?
process by which ATP is produced during the electron transport system in prokaryotic microbes.
Process by which protons are transported across the plasma membrane then dirruce back across the membrane through channels with enzymes producing ATP is known as __________.
Chemiosmosis
What % of energy in glucose is released as heat during respiration.
60%
What are the four parts of respiration in order?
Glycolysis-The Transiition reaction-Kreb's Cycle(citric Acid)-Electron Transporty Sustem
C6H12O6 + __a__ ---> __b__ + 6H2O + __c_ ATP + ___d___
a)6O2 b)6CO2 c)38 d)heat
What term describes the acaerobic oxidation of organic molecules occur producing foul smelling gas?
Putrefaction
______ microbes only produce lactic acid during fermentation.
Homofermentative (homolactic)
Microbes that ferment glucose and can produce lactic acid as well other acids or gases are called __________ .
Heterofermentative (heterolactic)
______ & _______ produce by yeasts during fermentation are used in brewing and baking.
Ethyl alcohol & carbon dioxide
What one reaction takes part in both respiration and fermentation.
Glycolysis
Glucose +2 ATP -----> 2 pyruvic acids + 4 ATP ----> 2 Ethyl alcohol + 2 CO2 is the summary of what reaction.
alcohol fermentation
The molecule at the end of the ETS that combines with the electron and carries off becoming a waste product is called.
Terminal electron acceptor
What is the universal terminal electron acceptor for ETS in aerobic respiration?
oxygen
The type of reaction where one molecule loses H2 or e- which another accepts is called _________.
oxidation - reduction
What type of reaction is a source of usable energy for all microbes?
Oxidation - reduction
CO2 + NADP+H + ATP ---6 times--> C6H12O6 is the summary of what chemical reaction in microbes.
Calvin-Benson cycle
Algae, cyanobacteria, and purple & green sulfur bacteria are examples of type of microbes?
Photosynthetic microbes
What type of photophosphorylation is occuring when the excited electron passes through carriers then back to the same chlorophyl?
cyclic photophosphorylation
What type of photophosphorylation occurs whithout oxygen and is noncyclic?
Anoxygenic Photophosphorylation
What are the products of cyclic photophosphorylation.
Only ATP
What is the term given to the splitting of water during the light reaction in algea and cyanobacteria?
photolysis
The reduction of NADP to NADPH and the production of ATP through excited electrons transported by carriers through a series of reaction similar to ETS in the presents of light.
What is the light reaction? and I bet $2,000 Alex.
What differentiates between anoxygenic from oxygenic photophosphorylation?
Oxygenic produces oxygenic by photolysis where as anoxygenic does not.
The Dark reaction is dependent on light. True or False?
False - it is only dependent on the products of the light reaction.
Type of photophosphorylation where the electron lost by the chloryphyl is replace by the process of photolysis.
Noncyclic photophosphorylation.
The oxygen we breath is primarily produced by what reaction that accurs during noncylcic photophosphorylation?
photolysis
What are the reactants of the Dark reaction and where are the derived?
NADPH & ATP from the Light reaction.