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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why do microbes need carbon?
It is required to synthesize organic components.
Why do microbes need energy source?
It is needed for living processes which require energy.
Why do microbes need nitrogen?
For the synthesis of proteins & nucleic acids & amino acids.
Why do microbes need phosphorous?
For the synthesis of phospholipids for membranes & nucleic acids.
Why do microbes need sulfur?
Needed for the synthesis of some proteins.
Why do microbes need trace elements?
Many are cofactors for enzyme function.
Why do microbes need water?
H2O comprises 80% of cytoplasm, it is a solvent and suspending agent, it required for all chemical reactions within the cell.
What are the five elements required by microbes in moderate amounts?
SCIMP-Sodium(Na), Calcium(Ca), Iron(Fe), Magnesium(Mg), Potasium(K)
Name some of the trace elements.
Zinc, Nickel, Cobalt, Copper, Manganese
Define autotroph.
A microbe that is able to fix CO2 from the air as their only carbon source.
Define heterotroph.
A microbe that cannot use CO2 out of the air therefore must have organic sources of carbon.
Define phototroph.
A microbe that uses light as an energy source.
Define chemotroph.
A microbe that is able to oxidize both organic & inorganic molecules as an energy source.
Define growth medium.
A nutrient suspension used to cultivate microbes.
Define and give examples of a photoheterotroph.
A microbe that requires one or more organic molecules as a source of carbon and uses light as it's energy source.-purple nonsulfur bacteria
Define and give examples of a photoautotroph.
A microbe that uses CO2 as it's carbon source and light as it's energy source.-algea & cyanobacteria
Define and give examples of a chemoautotroph.
A microbe that uses CO2 as it's carbon source and oxidizes inorganic molecules for energy.-iron bacteria & nitrogen bacteria in soil
Define and give examples of a chemoheterotroph.
Microbes that require organic molecules for carbon source and oxidizes organic molecules for inergy.-most bacteria, fungi, & protozoa
Define and give examples of an acidophile.
Microbe that has optimum growth at pH 0-6.5.-molds & fungi
Define alkalophile and give an example.
Microbes that has optimum at a pH range of 8.0-14.0.-alkaligenes(Vibrio cholera)
Define neutrophile and give an example.
Microbe that has optimum at a pH range of 6.5-7.5.-most human pathogens
Define psychrophile.
Microbes that have optimal growth from 0-20 degrees celcius.
Define mesophile.
Microbes that have optimal growth from 25-40 degrees celcius.
Define psychrotroph.
Mesophiles that have growth below 20 degrees celcius.
Define thermophile.
Microbes that have optimal growth from 40-100 degrees celcius.
Define hyperthermophiles.
Thermophiles that have optimal growth at 80-100 degrees celcius.
Define aerobe.
Microbes that require oxygen at some level to survive.
Define obligate aerobe.
Microbes that require atmospheric oxygen levels(21%)
Define microaerophile.
Microbes that require lower than 21% oxygen for optimal growth.
Define anaerobe.
Microbes that don't require oxygen and can grow without it.
Define aerotolerant anaerobe.
Microbes that don't depend on oxygen either way. Oxygen levels have no effect.
Define facultative anaerobe.
Microbes that have optimal with oxygen but are capable of growth without it.
Define obligate anaerobe.
Microbes that cannot grow in the presents oxygen.
Define capnophile.
Aerobe that 3% to 10% for optimal growth.
Define facultative halophile.
Halophile that can grow in an isotonic and hypertonic(2%-10%) salt solution.
Define obligate halophile.
Halophile that can not grow in an isotonic solution and must have a hypertonic(15%-30%)salt solution.
Define halophile.
Microbe that require or tolerate high salt environments.
Where would you find obligate halophiles growing.
Dead Sea or Salt pits
Define osmophile.
Microbe that grows in a high sugar or salt environment.
What are some examples of osmophiles?
Molds & Yeasts
What is plasmolysis?
The shrinking of the cytoplasm away from the cell wall due to lack of water due to being in a hypertonic environment.
What is turgor pressure?
The pressure of the cellular membrane pressing against the cell wall from taking more water than the cell can hold due to being in a hypotonic solution.
What is osmosis?
The diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane due to a difference in concentration.
Define isotonic and how it effects microbes placed in this environment.
Environment haveing the same concentration of water and solute inside and outside the cell and causes no change in the cell.
Define hypertonic and how it effects microbes placed in this environment.
Environment haveing a higher solute levels and lower water levels outside the cell and cause water to move out of the cell(plasmolysis)
Define hypotonic and how it effects microbes placed in this environment.
Environment haveing lower solute levels and higher levels of water outside the cell and causes water to move into the cell and usually lysis occurs.
True or False? A hypotonic solution has the greatest affect on microbial growth.
False (Hypertonic) due to lack of water inside the cell.
What are the three divisions of microbes by pH.
alkalophiles, & neutrophiles.
What are the three main divisions of microbes my temperature.
Psychrophiles, mesophiles, & thermophiles.
What do we call the microbe that has better growth in the presents of oxygen but can grow without it?
Facultative anaerobe
What is the name for a microbe that uses organic molecules for carbon and oxidizes organic molecules for energy?
What are the Cardinal temperatures?
Maximum temperature, minimum temperature, optimum temperature.
Name four factors effecting microbial growth.
1. temperature, 2. pH, 3. free oxygen, 4. osmotic pressure of environment
Give an example of a psychrotroph.
listeria monocytogenes
Name three places on earth that thermophiles can be found.
1. hot springs and geysers,2. ocean vents,3. compost piles.
What is PCR and what microbe is connected with it?
Polymerase Chain Reaction-a technique used to make many duplicate copies of DNA molecules and requires high temperatures.-thermophiles
What is pH?
The concentration of hydrogen ions H+. The scale ranges from 0-14. with 7 being nuetral.
A solution that has a pH of 2 has more hydroxyl ions that hydrogen ions. True or False?
False-the more hydroxyl ions a solution has the more basic it is.
What is a buffer and how is itused in microbial growth?
A solution that maintains constant pH and used to hold a media at the right pH for optimal growth of the microbe present.
Why does extreme heat and pH affect microbial growth and why?
They inhibit growth due to inhibiting the functionality of enzymes by denaturing them.
microbes require enzymes for many living functions.
What factors cause bacteria to die in an aging culture?
The number of bacteria is to great there fore the nutrients may be used up or the waste products may become toxic.(ie.extreme pH)
What are SOD and catalase.
enzymes needed to break down the toxic ptoducts when oxygen is used.
Which microbes lack SOD and catalase therefore making oxygen deadly to them.
obligate anaerobes
The fact that fermentation by facultative anaerobes is inhibited by high levels of oxygen is known as .....
The Pasteur effect