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60 Cards in this Set

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What caused the bubonic plague in 550 to 1350?
bacteria and transmitted by bites from fleas or from rat bites.
Who devised the 1st magnifying lenses and observed plant cells in cork from under bark from tree and developed compound scope?
1665 robert hooke
Who came up with the term "cell"?
robert hooke
who developed muchbetter lenses w/ up to 300x magnification?
VanLeeuwenhoek
what did Van Leeuwenhoek observe w/ the 300x magnification?
bacteria,protozoa,fungi, and algae
who developed the binomial classification in the early 1800's
Linneaus
in the early 1800's the scientist of the time thought that maggots arose from spoiled rotten food, is this true and who discovered the answer?
Redi (italian researcher)
what year was it when battles or wars were lost due to microbes?
100 BC
who invented pasteurization?
Pasteur
what is pasteurization?
its the process of heating to 56 degrees c for 30 minutes.
Does pasteurization kill microorganisms?
No but it does kill pathogens
what are some of the things that are pasteurized?
milk, beer, and wine
what is Koch's Postulates?
"germ theory" a particular organism causes a particular disease.
what are the exceptions to the koch's postulates?
syphilis and aids
who identified the organisms causing cholera,TB adn anthrax?
Robert Koch
Who taught the 1st microbiology course and where?
Robert Koch at University of Berlin in 1880's
What is puerperal fever?
it was the common cause of maternal death following child birth.
what was the cause of this fever and who found the prevention?
Semmelweis and Lister. wash the hands before and after child birth and autopsies.
what is the aseptic technique and who invented it?
Lister was coined the Father of Aseptic Technique, the sterilization of instruments w/carbolic acid between surgeries.
When was viruses 1st seen and w/what were they seen with?
in 1935 viruses were first seen w/an electron microscope.
what was the first virus seen?
tobacco mosaic virus
What was Dr. Reed known for?
he was convinced that yellow fever virus had to do w/mosquitos.
what is the study of immunology?
the study of how your immune system reacts w/microbes
what is immunology defined as?
the host to a desease organism.

what did edward jenner do in the 1700s?
-he prepared a vaccine from the fluid of cowpox lesions
-he also came up w/the word vaccine from vaca which means cows.
Who invented the 1st rabies vaccine?
Pasteur
who discovered tha t some bodies cells could ingest microbes and what did he name it?
Metchnikoff; phagocytes (eating cells)
what is chemotherapy?
-the use of chemicals to treat or fightinfections
-moldy bread (penicillin)
-treated pain or headaches w/extract of willow bark (aspirin)
in the middle ages they used a certain plant to treat heart disease, what was the name of the plant?
foxglove (digoxin)
what did they treat malaria w/in the middle ages?
Cinchona tree bark (quinine)
what did Alexander Fleming do?
-discovered that penicillin mold produced a substance that killed staph.A
-first true antibiotic
sulfa drugs in 1935
used to treat general infections
a metalic compound of sulfur still used today to treat primarily urinary infections or bladder infections
in 1953 what did Watson and Crick do?
DNA structure
what is microscopy?
technology of making very small things visible to human eye.
what is light?
it is composed of particles called photons
what are photons?
little packages of energy which travels in waves
what is a wavelength or length of light ray?
distance between waves
what is resolution?
the abilith to see two items as separate
as light rays pass through an object, one or more of these things may occur
reflection, transmission, absorbtion, diffraction and refraction
explain what happens in rflection...
light strikes the object and it bounces back
explain what happens in transmission
is the passage of light through an object
what are the two types of absorbtion?
luminescence and phosphorescence
what happens in the absorption?
all of the light is absorbed
explain luminescence
the light is absorbed and it is chaged into longer wavelengths and then re-emitted(florescence)
what happens in phosphorescence?
means that the object continues to emit light even when light rays no longer strike it
diffraction?
the light waves are broken into bands of different wavelengths when passing through a small opening
refraction?
the bending of a light passing from one medium to another
what is immersion oil used for?
to dcrease refraction and diffusion
how does the immersion oil decrease refraction and diffusion?
because the oil has same index of refraction as glass.this oil removes air as a medium see things much clearer
light microscope?
uses visable light to make these specimens visible
compound light microscope
it has several lenses
what is a bright field microscopy?
light transmitted through specimen
? dark field microscopy?
this type of microscope there is a special condenser(dark field condensor) causes the light to be reflected off of the specimen
phase contrast microscopy
uses special condenser (to observe alive and unstained organism)
florescent microscopy
ultraviolet light is used and causes different wavelengths to be released by some organisms.
electron microscopy
uses beam of electons
when do you use a transmission electron microscope?
for veiwing small internal cellular structures and it has a magnification up to 500,000X
what does a scanning electron microscope do?
creates 3D images of the surface of a specimen and magnifies up to 5000X(costed w/gold or palladium)
what ared some ways to prepare specimens for light microscope
-wet mounts
-hanging drop (special version of wet mount)
-smears
-process of staining
how do you wet mount?
a drop of medium containing the specimen in place on a microscope slide and it is covered w/a coverslip