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267 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a capsule ,where it is located and what is its functions?
gel like layer that functions as a protection or for adhesion
Do bacteria have a nucleous?
Where are bacteria found?
In all environments.
How do bacteria multiply and what is their size?
Binary Fission, and 70S
What type of cells are bacteria?
What shapes are bacteria?
Spehrical - coccus
rod like - bacillus
spiral -
What is the cell wall made of in Bacteria?
What is the DNA protected by in the Domain Archea?
Histones, proteins
What are the main catagories that describe Archea?
Unicelluar, prokaryotes, found in extreme environments, no peptidoglycan in the cell wall
What are examples of Archea?
methane producers,
halophiles, thermophiles
What are the characteristics of the Domain Eucarya?
Multi and Unicellular
nuclear membrane, Ribosome's 80S, A- sexual and Sexual
Eukaryote, DNA protected by nucleolus, Organelles
Chloroplast in plant & Algae
Cytoskeleton, Cell Wall: No peptidoglycan
Cytoplasmic Structure
chloroplast in plant and algal cells
Found: In environments that are not extreme
What are the Kindoms that belong to the Euckaryotes?
Algae, protista, animalia, fungi, monera(not used)
What is: A-cellular
Intracellular pathogens-
get inside other cells and harm the host-parasitic relationship

w/ protein coat
Live in a host
HIV & herpes
What characteristics does a viroid have and what are the pathogens?
Intracellular pathogens-get inside other cells and harm the host-parasitic
Replicates with living cells

RNA no protein coat

Live in a host
Plant parasite
Tree Tumors
Not known to cause human disease
Describe Protista and its characteristics.
Unicellular, organsims that don't fit into other catagories. Cell walls not rigid,Pathogenic species belong to
– Protozoa
– Algae • not pathogenic usually,
Algae fit into which Kingdom and what are the pathogens?
Protista. Pfiesteria (fish kills, in humans may
cause skin infections, allergies, eye
infections and other diseases)
– Causes algal blooms
What are the main characteristics of Fungi?
Fit into the Fungi Kingdom. Uni and Multicellular. Chitin cell walls, absorb food
What are two uses for Fungi?
Penicillium notatum: Produces the
natural antibiotic penicillin
What are two examples of pathogens that fit into the Kingdom Animalia?
• Parasitic flatworms and round worms
• Eg. Tapeworm, Roundworm, Leeches
What are the main characteristics of Animaila?
Multicellular, No cell walls
• Ingestive
• Pathogenic species
What is Candida albicans?
yeast infection
What are spores?
reproductive structures formed by fungi
What is a cellular and is responsible for HIV?
Viruses A-cellular
Intracellular pathogens-
get inside other cells and harm the host-parasitic relationship

w/ protein coat
Live in a host
HIV & herpes
What is the outer covering of a bacteria?
glycolox, capsule and slime layer
what are the internal components of a bacterium?
cytoplasam and ribosomes.
What is the genetic material and inclusions of a bacterium?
chromosomes and plasmids (GM)
Storage granules, vesicles (I)
What are the most common shapes of bacteria or prokaryotic cells?
1) Spherical: coccus
2) Rod: Bacillus
3) Coccobacillus
4)Vibrio– Curved rod like a
5)Spirillum– Rigid Spiral, like snake
6) Spirochete
– Flexible Helical
7) Pleomorphic
– Bacteria able to
vary shape Can shape change when environment comes in contact; won’t see any
What is a biofilm?
Bacteria in addition to being aggregating
With its own kind, they like to interact with
Other species of bacteria and other types of
Microbes like fungus or other things

When they hang out together often they are
Protective of each other called a BIOFILM; interaction of bacteria and other things
Does a bacteria have a plasma membrane?
Yes, its made of phospholipids
what is the cell wall in the bacteria made up of?
Peptidoglycan with 2 subunits;
What is a Gas vesicle and what is it's function?
Small protein compartments
Provides buoyancy to cell
Regulates vesicles and allow organisms to read ideal position in the environment
What are storage granules and what type of cell are they found?
Accumulation of polymers
Sytensis excess nutrient
Example gycogen, excess glucose is stored in glycogen granules

What is cytoplasam and where can it be found?
Gel like substance inside the plasma membrane containing
Metabolic products:
What are plasmids and where are they located?
Inside the prokayrotic bacteria cell
Circular, double stranded DNA molecules
.1% to 10% size of chromosome
Independently replicating
Contain genes that code for protein
Gives host cell:
Capability to survive harsh conditions
Antibiotic resistance
Ability to metablolize unique molecules like petroleum
Capability to produce toxins
What is Made up of 2 layers, bilayer
Each layer has one end hydrophyllic
The other end hydrophobic
Plasma membrane
Components of a plasma membrane:
What chemicals make it up?
Molecule of glycerol
two molecules of fatty acids (long chains of fat)
head is a phosphate and usually another polar group
If you throw fatty acids in water what will they do?
Take a bunch of fatty acids, throw in water, tails will go up and the heads go toward the water
Are plasma membranes different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Membrane exactly the same in bacteria, eukaryotes, fungi, plants
What does each phospholipid layer of the plasma membrane contain?
Hydrophyllic and hydrophobic head and tail, intergral and periphrial proteins, carboyhydrates
What do the intergral and periphrial proteins do in the plasma membrane?
function as receptors and transport channels, and provide the mechanism to sense the surroundings
What is the BIG DIFFERENCE between Prokaryote and Eukaryotes?
Inside the membrane the prokaryote has mesosomes.
What are mesosomes?
Eukaryotic cells don’t have mesosome ( membrane folds)
Have a lot of proteins and enzymes required by bacteria
to make cellular respiration to make energy or ATP

Mitochondria in Eukaryotes makes ATP
Prokaryotes don’t have mitochondria, have taken all the enzymes
And proteins found on a mitochondria and stuck them on the mesosome
Look at cynobacteria and what its functions are:
mesosomes also hold the chlorophyll because they don’t have chloroplast
Saline solution is what concentration?
.9% salt
What does the capsule do for the bacteria?
protects the bacterium, even within phagocytes, helping to prevent the cell from being killed.
What are some pathogens for capsulated bacteria?
All the bacteria that cause meningitis are encapsulated.The slime produced by Streptococcus mutans enables it to stick to the surface of teeth, where it helps to form plaque, leading eventually to dental caries.
Bacteria have the ability to produce highly resistant structures:
Diseases caused by sporing bacteria include:
botulism (Clostridium botulinum), gas gangrene (Clostridium perfringens), tetanus (Clostridium tetani) and acute food poisoning (Clostridium perfringens, again) All these bacteria are 'anaerobic'. Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis
Gram Positive- purple stains what type of cells?
Cells with many layers of peptidoglycan can retain a crystal violet-iodine complex when treated with acetone
Gram Negative is used for what t/ype of cells
have only one or two layers of peptidoglycan and cannot retain the crystal violet-iodine complex. These need counterstaining with another dye to be seen using Gram's method. A red dye such as dilute carbol fuchsin is often used.
The cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria lies beyond the cell membrane and is largely made up of what?
Peptidoglycan and Other polymers including teichoic and teichuronic acids also lie in the cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria. These act as surface antigens
What is the make up of the cell envelope of the Gram Negative bacteria?
Above the cell membrane is a periplasm. This area is full of proteins including enzymes. One or two layers of peptidoglycan lie beyond the periplasm. Beyond the peptidoglycan of the Gram-negative cell wall lies an outer membrane. This has protein channels - porins - through which some molecules may pass easily. The outer side of the Gram-negative outer membrane contains lipopolysaccharide. This provides the antigenic structure of the surface of Gram-negative bacteria and also acts as endotoxin
Where is the cell wall of bacteria located?
The cell wall lies outside the cell membrane, and the rigid peptidoglycan is important in defining the shape of the cell, and giving the cell mechanical strength
Active Transport happens with
higher concentration to low concentration with help of protein, but for the protein to be opened, energy is needed ATP
Passive transport happens with
Passive transport happens with concentration gradient, which means more concentration on one side, less on the other, If the protein is making a channel
The bacterial cell wall helps to distinguish between what?
Gram postitive and negative
Fungi cell walls are made up of what?
Algae cell wall made up of?
Glycogalyx is located where?
outside the cell wall
what is the theory that explains mitochondria and chloroplasts in Eukaryotes?
Endosymbionic Theory;Alternate theories of the evolution of eukaryotic cells.
The mitochondria and chloroplasts are developments of the invaginations of the cell membrane. Such that the rest of the cell, being relieved from power house duties, became highly developed and evolved.
The bacterium some how developed externally, and the casing around the bacterium is now what we call a eukaryotic cell.
You are given a prepared slide and are told that it is a streptobacillus. Without even looking at the slide under the microscope, you know what about its morphology?
The bacteria are linked together in chains. The bacteria are rod-shaped.
Most possess a cell wall made of peptidoglycan. Some possess flagella for motility. Free ribosomes are used for protein synthesis. All possess a plasma membrane to regulate the movement of substances in and out of the cells. What type of cell is this?
Phospholipid molecules are arranged with the hydrophobic tails facing each other in the middle of the membrane.
The hydrophilic head portion of the phospholipid bilayer faces the outside of the cell and the cytoplasm of the cell.
The proteins are freely movable within the plasma membrane.
The process in which water moves through a selectively permeable membrane in the direction of higher solute concentration is called
What would occur if a prokaryotic cell is placed in a solution that has a higher concentration of nondiffusable solute than the cytoplasm of the cell?
Water would be pulled out of the cell causing the cell membrane to be pulled away from the cell wall.
Transport processes that require the input of energy by the cell and transport substances against a concentration gradient are called
Active transport
What are characteristic(s) of Gram-positive cell walls?
thick layer of peptidoglycan : teichoic acid
The outside leaflet of the outer membrane of bacteria is composed of lipopolysaccharides
The outer membrane of bacteria contains porins that allow passage of molecules and ions directly into the cytopla
The outer membrane of bacteria acts as a protective barrier by excluding many toxic compounds.
The outer membrane of bacteria is found in Gram-negative bacteria, not Gram-positive.
A lipopolysaccharide molecule that is released from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria when they die and causes the symptoms of the bacterial infection is called a(n)____________________.
What action does penicillin have that makes it effective in treating many types of bacterial infections?
It interferes with peptidoglycan synthesis.
What structures do bacteria use for attachment to surfaces or to each other?
The movement of bacteria in response to chemicals in their environment is called
The chromosome of prokaryotes is located in which of the following regions?
What has extrachromosomal pieces of DNA.
Is a plasmid necessary for survival of a cell?
Can plasmids be transfered to other bacteria?
Are plasmids advantageous for a cell?
Yes, in some instances
A resistant, dormant structure that can survive adverse conditions and germinate when conditions become favorable is called a
Is an environmental toxin that alters the role of the cytoskeleton is likely to harm a bacteria cell?
Chemicals that deplete ATP in a cell are most likely to affect which of the following cell transport systems?
Active transport
A microbiologist wants a simple way to attract and collect bacteria that grow only in the absence of oxygen. She is best served by using the following substance or item to attract the bacteria from a soil in the field:
A magnet
Many bacterial throat infections are aggravated by the fact that the bacteria can attach to throat cells. Drugs can be developed that reduce the ability of bacteria to stick to surfaces. Which of the following structures would most likely be affected by these drugs?

Storage granules.
Cell membrane.
In spore formation, the stage in which DNA condenses and aligns itself in the center of the cell is called
mother cell
The spore layer containing peptidoglycan is the
As calcium enters the spore
water is removed from the cell.
The protein coat forms outside the exosporangium.
Spore formation is initiated when there is a scarcity of nutrients and conditions are adverse.
Movement toward or away from molecular oxygen
Cylindrical shaped bacterium also referred to a rod.
The structure that anchors the flagella to the cell wall and the plasma membrane
basal body
A protein that functions in the ABC transport system and resides immediately outside of the cytoplasmic membrane to deliver a given molecule to a specific transport complex biofilm, polysaccharide encased community of microorganisms attached to a surface within the membrane.
binding protein
toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum that can cause fatal paralysis in people who consume it.
botulinum toxin
Type of protein found in cell membranes that transport certain compounds accross the membrane, also called permease or transporter protein
The capsule (if present) cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane
cell envelope
Organelles in photosynthetic euckaryotic cells that harvest the engergy fo sunlight and use it to release ATP
Sterol found in animal cell membranes and provides rigidity to eukaryotic membranes
Short, projecting hairlike organelle of locomotion, similar to a flagellum
Proteins that line regions or wukaryotice cell membranes that are internalized during the process of endocytosis
spherical shaped bacterial cell
Lens of a microsope that is used to focus the illumination
condenser lens
mechanism of gene transfer in bacteria that involves cell to cell contact
Layer of the endospore that helps maintain the core in a dehydrated state, protecting it from the effects of heat
flexible structure immeadiately surrounding the cytoplasm of all cells
cytoplasmic membrane
Dynamic filamentous network that provides structure and shape of eukaryotic cells
type of staining used to differentiate bacterial from one another and distinguish shapes
differential staining
a separation of charged ions across the membrane
electochemical gradient
electron microscope can maginify to what?
Series of electron carriers that transfer elctrons from donors such as NADH to acceptors such as oxygen
electon transport chain
Process by which cells take up particles by enclosing them in a vesicle pinched off from the cell membrane
Internal membrane of a eukaryotic cell to which ribosomes are attached
endoplasmic reticulum
vesicle formed when a cell takes up material from the surrounding environment using the process of ehocytosis
Microorganism that resides within another cell, providing a benefit to the host cell
Theory that the ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts were bacteria that had been residing within other cells in a mutually benefical partnership
endoymbiont theory
A compound, Lipid A, within the outer membrane of Gram Negative that elicits symptoms characteristic of infections caused by live bacteria
Sterol found in fungal cell membranes the target of many antifungal drugs
Transport process that enables movement of impermeable compounds from one side of the membrane to the other by expolinting a concentration gradient, does not require expenditure of energy by the cell
facilitated diffusion
Type of pilus that enables cells to attach to a specific surface.
Long shiplike appendage composed of microtubles in a 9+2 arranges for locomotion
flagellum in eukaryotic cells
long protein appendage composed of subunits of flagellin that provides a mechanism of motility
Flafellum in Prokaryotes is what?
Portion of the endospore formed during the process of sporulation that will ultimately become the core of the endospore
Small rigid compartments produced by some aquatic bacteria that provide buoyance to the cell. Gases but not water, flow freely into the vesicles
gas vesicles
Gel like layer that surrounds some cells and generally functions as a mechaism of either protection or attachment
Plysaccharide composed of glucose molecules
lipids that have various sugars attached
Proteins with covalently bonded sugar molecules
membrane bound flattened sacs with eukaryotic cells that serve as the site where macromolecules that are sytesized in the ER are modified before they are transported to other destination
golgi apparatus
techinque that divides bacteria into one of two groups, gram + or - on the basis of color
gram stain
bacteria lose the crystal violet in the gram stain procedure and stain pink,
gram negative
the cell walls are composed of a thing layer of petidoglycan surrounded by an outer membrane
gram negative
Bacteria that retain the violet stain in the procedure and stain purple
gram positive
the cell wall of these organisms is composed of a thick layer or peptidoglycan
gram postivie
A type of process that chemically atlers a molecule during its passage through the cytoplasmic membrane
group translocation
Curved structure that connects the filament of the flagella to the cell surface
The cytoplasmic membrane of gram negative bacteria
inner membrane
the membrane on the interior side of an organelle that has a double membrane in Eukaryotic cells
inner membrane
Portion of lipopolysaccharide LPS that form in the outer leaflet in the lipid bilayer of the outer membrane of the Gram negative cells
Lipid A
Responsible for the toxic effects of LPS, lipopolysaccharide
Lipid A
Molecule formed by bonding of lipid to polysaccharide, a part of the outer membrane of Gram - bacteria
Lipopolysaccharide, LPS
Component of the gram+ cell wall that is linked to the cytoplasmic membrane
lipoteichoic acids
To Burst
membrane bound structure in Eukaryotci cells that contain powerful degradative enzymes
enzyme that degrades the peotidoglycan layer of bacterial cell wall
movement by bacterial cells containing magnetite crystals in response to a magnetic field
specialized proteins imbedded in the membrane bilayer. some funtion as receptors and others funciton as transport proteins
membrane proteins
cytoskeleton structures of a eukaryotic cell that form a mitotic spindles, cilia and flagella, long hollow gylinders compsode of tubuiln
sustance that increases the affinity of cellular componets for a dye
One of the two alternating subunits of the glycan chains that make up petidoglycan
N-acetylglucosamine NAG
employs an acidic dye to stain the background against which colorless cells can be seen
negative staining
Region of a prokaryotic cell containing DNA
region within the nucleus where ribosomal RNA are syntesized
Unit of chromatin of eukaryotic cells that consists of a complex of histones around withch the linear DNA wraps twice
membrane bound organelle in a eukaryotic cell that contains the chromosomes and the nucleolus
short chains of monosaccharide subunits joined together by covalent bonds, shorter that a polysaccharide
structure within a cell that perfoms a specific function
pressure exerted by water on the cytoplasmic membrane due to a difference in the concentraion of molucules on each side of the membrane
osmotic pressure
the unique lipid bilayer of gram negative cells that surround the peptidoglycan layer
outer membrane of prokaryotic cells
the short chain of amino acids that links the peptide chains of adjacent N-acetylmuramec acid molecules
peptide interbridge
Rigid backbone of the bacterial cell wall, composed of repeating subunits of N-acelymuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine and a number of amino acids
peptidoglycan layer
very narrow gel that lies between the cell wall and the cytoplasmic membrane in Gram- bacteria
Pili, hairlike appendages appear on which bacteria, Gram + or -
Gram Negative
bacteria that are characteristically varied in shape
proteins in the outer membrane of gram neg bacteria that form channels for small moelcules to pass
Type of RNA present in ribosomes, the nucleotide sequences of these are increasingly being used to classify and in some cases identify microorganisms
ribosomal RNA rRNA
structure that facilitaes the joining of amino acids during the process of translation, composed of protein and ribosomal RNA
organlle where proteins are synthesized that are not located in the cytoplasm
rough endoplasmic reticulum
membrane that allows some but not other molecules to pass through freely
selectively permeable membrane
type of glycocalyx that is diffuse and irregular
slime layer
organelle of eukaryotic cells that is the site of lipid synthesis and degradation and calcium ion storage
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
type of long helical cell with a felcible cell wall that is characterized by an axial filament
Gram+, composed of chains of a commmon subunit, either ribitol phosphate or gycerol phospahte, to which various sugars a D alanine are usually attached
teichoic acids
typical actively mulitiplying cell
vegetative cell
short curved rod shaped bacterial cell
Piece of RNA that does not have a protein coat but does replicate within living cells
A-cellular, non-living agent composed of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat
curved rod long enough to form spirals
infectous protein that has no nucleic acid
conversion of nitrogen gas to ammonia
nitrogen fixation
parasitc worms
first binomail system of classification
system of naming each species of organismsa with two latin words
binomial system
Almost all eukaryotic cells are gram - or +
gram +
What are gram + bacteria susceptible to
antibiotics like penicillin and antimicrobial substances like lysozume and disinfectants
Gram ___ bacteria produce exotoxins and Gram ___ produce endotoxins
positive and negative
Gram+ bacteria have a _____ layer of _______ outside the plasma membrane
thick petidoglycan
Gram- bacteria have a ___ layer of ______ located where
thin peptidoglycan sandwiched betweeen the palsman membrand and an additional outler lipid membrane
Steps in Gram Staining 1-4
1- primary stain
2- mordant-iodine
3- decolorize acetone alcohol
4- counter stain red pink
To stain a Mycobacterium you would use what?
acid fast stain
A viscous layer that envelopes a cell and is sometimes correlated with an organisms ability to cause disease.
capsule, ribosomes, cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, cytoplasm, pili, chromosome, nucleiod, storage granule, flagellum
Name all of the parts of the bacterial cell.
when one plane divides into two it's called
DNA and RNA are composed of two parts,
the sugar phosphate backbone and nucleotide bases.
The bases in DNA are
purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (cytosine and thymine).
Amino acids can be classified into three groups,
polar, non-polar, and charged.
Lipids contain
a glycerol backbone. To this backbone are attached a polar group and two long-chain fatty acids
All cells are organized into functional units. What is found in every cell?
Membranes, cytoplasm, ribosomes and nuclear regions are found in every cell.
Prokaryotic DNA is organized into a DNA-protein complex called
the nucleoid.
What is a polymer of N-acetyl glucosamine, N-acetyl muramic acid, and amino acids.
Gram negative cell walls contain a thin layer of peptidoglyan between the
cytoplasmic membrane and the outer membrane
LPS is what and made up of what
lipid A
saccharide-chain of sugar chains
It is very hard for the gram - cell to bring things into the cell.
LPS in Gram- bacteria is very critical why?
bacterial infection gets in your body, body fights it, breaks them down, then the Gram- cell wall starts breaking down, then releases Lipid A and acts like a toxin
Want a Gram+ or gram- bacterial infection?
can gram + make toxins?
yes called exotoxin
protein made by the bacteria then secreated out of the cell when the bacteria is still alive
Identify mycobaculim with acid fast staining why
because it has a waxy outercovering on the cell wall
Streptococcous mutans live where
in your mouth, capable of making glycocalyx
Lactobacicillus adophilus
comes along with alot of stroptococcus mutans in your mouth, enjoy the buffet and create ACID eats your tooth enamel
penecilliun created by
fleming, interferes with the syntesis of peptidoglycan, more ptp, the more effective the antibiotic will be
natural antibiotic that destroys the ropes that hold the PTP together
Endospores contain four layers
core, cortex, coat, and exosporium.
A highly organized cytoskeleton is present in what type of cell
what is The Golgi apparatus?
double membrane structure mainly concerned with the maturation of proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and the formation of lysosomes.
Mitochondria are found where?
in almost all eukaryotic cells and convert high energy electrons into ATP
Plastids are factories for
photosynthesis, converting light energy into high energy electrons and ATP.
State the function of the following components of the gram-negative cell wall:

a. peptidoglycan
Peptidoglycan prevents osmotic lysis
Describe the structure and appearance of a gram-negative cell wall outer membrane
The outer membrane, being semipermeable, prevents some toxic materials such as lysozyme and penicillin G from entering many gram-negative bacteria. The Lipopolysaccharides or LPS function as an endotoxin
The theory that organisms can arise from nonliving matter is called
spontaneous generation
Who performed experiments to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation?
Redi, Tyndall and Pastuer
Genetic engineering of microorganisms can benefit us in which of the following ways? 1. production of vaccines 2. production of medically important products 3. to engineer plants that are resistant to insects and disease 4. to produce viruses that can deliver genes to correct genetic defects in humans
1 2 3 4
The scientist who introduced a vaccination procedure for smallpox was
The scientist who discovered and characterized the first antibiotic (penicillin) was
They are eukaryotes.
Some are single-celled and others are multicellular.

Yeasts, molds, and mushrooms are examples of fungi.
Organisms that are large, complex, single-celled, lacking a cell wall, and frequently classified by their means of locomotion are
Acellular, non-living agents consisting of a protein coat that surrounds a nucleic acid core are called
Tapeworms belong to which of the following groups?
multicellular parasites.
First person credited with visualization of bacteria?
Anthony van Leeuwenhoek.
A camper is using a water filter in order to safely drink from a stream. The filter is only able to filter out organisms larger than 1 micron. From which of the following organisms would it most likely protect people?
Some bacteria and almost all protozoa.
Does penecillin kill bacteria?
These antibiotics don’t outright kill the bacteria, but just stop them from being able to make more cell wall so they can grow
Staphylococci is gram__
Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS
Streptococci is gram ___
Streptococcus pneumonia is gram ___
Gonorrhea is gram ___
Meningitis is gram ___
Some members of Kingdom Protista are
unicellular, multicellular colonial
Protists are grouped into three major, unofficial categories based on means by which they obtain nutrition
, the Algae, and the Fungus-like Protist
These protists are animal-like, especially in their nutrition. They ingest their food by phagocytosis. Some have mouth-like structures into which the prey is put while others use pseudopodia to move and to engulf prey. Typical prey include bacteria and other smaller one-celled organisms
sporophyte produces
produces spores
Fungus-like Protists
These organisms are called “slime molds.” They are fungus-like in their nutrition in that they absorb nutrients from their environment. Their “body” structure is unusual in that the nuclei undergo mitosis, but there is no cytokinesis--there are no individual cells with one nucleus each
Fungi are
eukaryotes and are heterotrophs that absorb (not ingest) their food. They secrete digestive chemicals into environment, where the food is “digested”, after which they absorb the nutrients.
Most fungi are multicellular (yeast are secondarily unicellular).
Fungi can be saprophytes, parasites, or mutualistic symbionts.
Saprophytes get nutrition from what?
absorb nutrients from dead organic matter (dung, corpses, etc.). These are important, necessary decomposers.
Parasites get nutrition from what?
absorb nutrients from the body fluids of a host organism, to the detriment of the host
Candida albican
single-celled, yeast-type fungus which lives in our large intestines
One of the First Microscopes was made by the Dutch drapery store owner Anton von Leewenhoek. With his hand-held microscope, Leewenhoek became the FIRST PERSON to
observe and describe microscopic organisms and living cells.
Scientist Robert Hooke used
Hook called what he saw "Cells". They looked like "little boxes" and reminded him of the small rooms in which monks lived, SO HE CALLED THEM "CELLS
CELL THEORY consist of THREE Principles
A. All living things are composed of one or more cells.
B. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism.
C. Cells come only from reproduction of existing cells.
system of membranous tubules and sacs. The ER functions primarily as an intracellular highway of membranes that connect the nucleus to the cell membrane, a path along which molecules move from one part of the cell to another
is studded with RIBOSOMES and processes PROTEINS to be exported from the cell.
is NOT covered with RIBOSOMES and processes LIPIDS (fats) and CARBOHYDRATES (sugars).
A system of membranes made of flattened sac like structures called cisternae. It works closely with the ER to modify and package proteins for export by the cell.
are common in the cells of animals, fungi, and protists, but rare in plant cells.Small spherical organelles or vesicles that are formed from pieces of the golgi apparatus that break off. They enclose enzymes and. are the site of food digestion and worn out cell components. They can also cause cell destruction. Lysosomes
produce the cell’s energy by carrying out CELLULAR RESPIRATION, have own DNA
PLANT CELLS have three additional structures not found in animals cells.
cell walls, vaculoes and chloroplast
vacuole that takes up most of the space within the cell and is used for storage of all sorts of molecules.
collection of GENETICALLY IDENTICAL CELLS that live together in a closely connected group.
DNA contains the GENETIC CODE in sequences of chemicals called
NUCLEOTIDES. (G = Guanine A = Adenine T = Thymine C = Cytosine)
If the concentration of solute (salt) is equal on both sides, the water will move back in forth but it won't have any result on the overall amount of water on either side.
The word "HYPO" means less, in this case there are less solute (salt) molecules outside the cell, since salt sucks, water will move into the cell.
The word "HYPER" means more, in this case there are more solute (salt) molecules outside the cell, which causes the water to be sucked in that direction.
layer that is distinct and gelatinous
slime layer
diffuse and irregular
examples of capsules
dental plaque, streptococcus mutans, steptococcus pnemonia causes disease if it has a capsule