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121 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
who was the first to suggest that microbes exist?
Who first viewed microbes through a crude microscope which explained bacterium and protozoans
Who suggested sponateous generation?
________ challenged sponateous generation
Francesco Red
What was Franscesco Red's experiment?
He used 3 pieces of meat and put each in their own seperate beaker then put 1 wit no cover 1 with a cover and 1 with gauze.
"Microbes are too abundant and everywhere, cannot be explained any other way!" Who said this and what did he believe in?
Vanleeuwenhoek, sponateous generation.
What was wrong with Needham's experiment?
He let the broth cool so while it was cooling microbes were falling into the flask
How did spallanzani improve Needham's experiment?
He heated the flask for 45-60 minutes and then he put a cap on right after so microbes wouldn't fall from the air
What was wrong with Spallanzani's experiment?
The people didn't believe the conclusion because they believed nothing could survive without air.
Who perfected Needhams experiment?
Who created the swan-necked flask?
Louis Pastuer
What was the conclusion of Louis Pastuer's experiment
microbes come from pre existing microbes in the flask or air
Microbes come from pre existing microbes in the flask or air was known as what?
Who was the first to suggest that microbes cause disease?
________ was the man who observed that many post-surgical patients die from infection.
Joseph Lister
What did Joseph Lister use to clean surgical instruments?
What did Joseph Lister use to clean the surgical table, in air, and wound dressings?
_________ Showed a direct link between the bacterium bacillus anthracis, and the disease anthrax.
Robert Koch
A set of rules for establishing a link between a particular microbe and disease is known as what?
Koch's postualtes
List the 4 Koch's Postulates
1. suspected microbe must be present in every individual with the disease, but absent in healthy susceptible individuals.
2. Must isolate suspected microbe from an infected individual and gorw in a pure culture.
3. Once pure culture is inoculated into a healthy, susceptible individual, they must becomeill with some disease
4.Re-isolate the suspected microse from newly infected individual.
When could Koch's Postuales not be met for? give 1 ex for each.
1. Microbes cannot be gorwn in lab or in pure culture (Bacterium that causes sphilis)
2. Deases not caused by microbes (genetic disease)
3. Disease that occur only in humans (gonorhea)
4. Disease that are caused by multiple microbes (diarhea)
________ observed that women who had recovered from cowpox did not get small pox
Edward Jenner
What did Eward Jenners experiment consist of?
inserting scab scrapings from milkmaids with cowpox into an incision he created on little boys. After the cowpox cleared up he did the same thing with the small pox
By mistake ________ & _________ created old cultures of bacterium thats causes cholera.
Pastuer & Chamberlin
Who was trying to find a cure for syphilis called Salvarsan
Paul Ehrlich
What does Salvarsan mean?
salvation from syphillis
What formulation was used for a shirt time but was stopped because it was still too toxic?
606th formulation
__________ studied staphlococcus
Alexander Flemming
What did Flemming later discover?
Mold secreted Penicillin to inhibit bacteria
What happened to Flemmings culture?
By mistake the culture became contaminated by a mold
Most Microbes are either what?
1. Prokaryote
2. Eukaryote
Are Viruses a prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell?
What is the major difference between a Prokaryotic cell and a Eukaryotic cell?
A prokaryotic cell lacks a true Nucleus
What type of cell is Bacteria? Prokaryotic, or Eukaryotic
What type of cell is Protozoans, fungi, and algae? Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?
In Prokaryotic cells what is used to identify a cell?
(there is 9)
1.Cell size
2.Cell Shape
3.Cell Arrangement
4.Plasma membran
5.Cell Wall
7.Pili & Fimbriae
What is the cell average length and diameter of a prokaryotic cell.
0.2-2.0 un in diameter
2.0-8.0 un in length
What are the 7 common shapes of a prokaryotic cell and what are the scientific names?
1.Rod (Bacillus, Bacilli)
2.Round(coccus, cocci)
3.Rigid Spirals (spirilla)
4.Flexible spirals (spirochetes)
5.Bent/Boomerang (Vibrio)
6.Rod w/ Tapered ends (fusiform bacillus)
7.Oval (coccobacillus)
What are the different cell arangements for coccus cells?
(There are 6)
2.Pairs (Diplococcus)
3.Chains (streptococcus)
4.packet of 4 cells (tetrad)
5.Packet/Cube of 8,16,32 cells (sarcinae)
6.Random clusters (staphylcoccus)
What are the different cell arangements for Bacillus cells?
(there are 4)
1. Singles
2.Pairs (diplobacillus)
3.Chains (streptobacillus)
4.Step like (Palisade)
When grown on a solid plate medium cells accumulate and become visible to naked eye...what has it become?
a colony
What does the Plasma Membrane seperate?
The interior of the cell from the exterior of the cell
What are the 2 basic components od the Plasma membrane?
1. Phospholipid Bilayer
What does the Phospholipid Bilayer consist of?
1. Phosphate haed
2.Fatty acid tales
Is the phosphate head of the phospholipid bilayer polar,non polar,hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Polar, Hydrophilic
Is the fatty acid tale of the phospholipid bilayer polar,non polar,hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Non-polar, hyrophobic
Draw a phopholipid bilayer
Look at notes to see if u are correct
What is the function of the plasma membrane in a prokaryotic cell?
(3 things) of metabolic reactions such as photosynthesis and cellular respiration
2.Allow cells to sense its environment
3.Serves as a selectively permeable barrier (controls movement of molecules in &out of cell)
What are 3 general types of movement in a prokaryotic cell?
1.Passive diffusion
2.Facilitated Diffusion
3.Active transport
What type of energy does passive diffusion use to get to equilibrium?
What type of movement occurs in passive and facilitted diffusion?
High concentration to Low Concentraition
What does the rate of Passive diffusion depend on?
W?hat does the rate of facilitated diffusion and active transport depend on
# of protein carriers, saturable
What does facilitated diffusion require?
Protein carriers
awhat type of movement occurs in active transport?
Low concentration to high concentration
What type of energy is required by the cell for active transpotr?
Does active transport require a carrier?
What is the cell wall in a Prokaryotic cell?
an additional layer outside of the Plasma Membrane
What is the Cell walls Function?
2.Maintain shape of cell
What are the two cell wall types?
1.Gram Positive
2. Gram Negative
What do both cell wall types of a prokaryotic cell contain?
Is the peptidoglycan layer thicker in gram negative or gram positive? How thick are both?
Gram positive is thicker
(20-80 nm)
Gram negative is thinner
(1-3 nm)
What is the inner face of the outer membrane composed of in the Gram negative?
What is the Outer face composed of in the Gram Negative?
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
What does the LPS do in the gram negative cell wall?
The LPS makes outer membrane less permeable then the gram positive cell wall
What does penicillin degrade?
Is penicillin more effective towards gram positive or Gam Negative? Why?
Gram Positive
When the Peptidoglycan is estroyed a gram + has no more wall but a gram - still has outer membrane for protection
________ is an additional layer outside of the cell wall composed priarily of Polysaccharides and is not present in all prokaryotes.
What is the function of glycocalyx?
1.allows cell to adhere to solid surfaces
2.Protects cell from drying out
3.Protects cell from being attacked by cells of our immune system
What are the two types of glycocalyx and what are their structures?
1.Capsule-thick,well organized and firmly attached to cell wall
2.Slime Layer-thin, not well organized and loosely attached to the cell wall
What is the Pili and Fimbriae and what are their structures?
Relatively short,hair-like extensions from the cell
Pili-longer then fimbriae and less numerous (usually 1-10 on surface)
Fimbriae-shorter than pili, but more numerous (usually > 10)
What is the flagella in a prokaryotic cell?
A long hairlike extension from cell surface
What is the structure of a flagellum and what do they do?
1.Basal body-Anchors flagellum to cell wall & plasma membrane
2.Hook-Intermediate part & filament
3.Filament-longest portion of the flagellum,usually as long as the cell itself
What is the function of a flagellum?
Motility/ movement (flagellum rotates)
What are the flagellar arrangements?
(there are 4)
What is the structure of an endospore and its function?
Structure-a mini dormant version of the cell
Function: survive any type of harsh environmental conditions
Can all species form endospores? Where are they most commonly found?
No; commonly found in gram positive cells
What is the cytoplasm consisted of?
mainly water w/ proteins, sugars, salts, vitamins mixed in
What is the structure and function of a nucleoid in a prokaryotic cell?
Structure-usually a sigle circular molecule of DNA w/ up to 3500 genes
Function-Contains the blue prints of the cell for structure and function, specifically, instructions for creation of proteins
What is the structure and function of plasmids in a prokaryotic cell?
Structure-Smaller ,circular fragments of DNA w/ 5-100 genes
Function-Instruction for "goodies", extra things that are not required for normal cell function
What is the structure and function of ribosomes in a prokaryotic cell??
structure-composed of protein and robosomal RNA (rRNA)
Function- Protein synthesis using instructions from DNA
Where can ribosomes be found in a prokaryotic cell?
(2 locations)
1.Free-floating in cytoplasm-used to create proteins for use inside cell
2.Attached to Plasma Membrane-used to create proteins that will be secreated from the cell or become part of PM or cell wall
What is the structure and function of Molecular Chaperones?
Structure-proteins in cytoplasm or PM
Function-Helps fold newly created proteins into their "mature" 3-D structure and helps move proteins across PM
What is the structure and function of Granules or inclusion bodies?
Structure-highly compacted aggregates
What are the basic differences from Eukaryotes to Prokaryotes?
(3 basic differences)
1.Presence of a true nucleus and other membrane boud organelles
2.Larger in size (10-100 um)
3.Structurally and functionally more complex
What are the different cell wall structures for Eukaryotic cells and what are they composed of?
1.Fungal walls-composed of polysaccharides such as chiti,cellulose, glycan
2.Algae-composed of mainly polysaccharides such as cellulose, pectin
3.Protozoans-lack true cell walls, but many have a pellicle (multiple layers of thread like proteins that overlap.found just inside the PM)
Is there peptidoglycan in Eukaryotic cells?
What is the structure of the Eukaryotic plasma membrane?
Phopholipid bilayer, proteins embedded in bilayer, sterols embedded in bilayer, carbs attached to protein on surface of PM.
What do Sterols provide in the plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell?
What is the plasma membranes function in a eukaryotic cell?
1.allows cell to sense its environment
2.serves as a selectively permeble barrier
What type of movement occurs across the PM in a eukaryotic cell?
1.Passive diffusion
2.Facilitated diffusion
3.Active transport
4.Bulk transport
What are the two types of bulk Transport?
What is exocytosis?
Bulk movement inside of the cell (carrying waste,toxins, etc.)
What is endocytosis?
Bulk movement into the cell
What are the 2 types of endocytosis and wut do they do?
1.Pinocytosis-cell transports liquids into cell
2.Phagocytosis-cell transports solid materials
What is the structure and the function of the Eukaryotic Nucleus?
Structure-largest organelle inside of cell. covered by a double membrane; contains genetic information w/ atleast 3x as much DNA as a typical prokaryote
Function-carries blue prints/instructions for structrued &functional features of the cell
What is the Structure and function of the ribosomes in a Eukaryotic cell?
Structure-composed of protein & rRNA (larger than prokaryotic ribosomes)
Where are the ribosomes in a Eukaryotic cell located?
1.Free floating in cytoplasm-synethesis proteins to be used in the cytoplasm that do not require "packaging"
2.Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-synthesis proteins for secretion ,insertion, into PM or cell wall, for vacuoles,for lysosomes
What is the structure of the Endoplasmic reticulum in a Eukaryotic cell?
a network of membrane bound tubules and flattened sacs.
What are the two types of ER?
1.Rough ER-has ribosomes on the surface
2.Smooth ER-No ribosomes on the surface
What is the function of Smooth ER?
Contains Enzymes involved in lipid synthesis, once the lipids are createdsmooth ER packages Lipids in a vesicle for transport through the cell
What is the function of Rough ER?
Packages proteins made my ribosomes on the surface for transport through the cell.
What is the Structure and Function of the Golgi Aparatus in a Eukaryotic cell?
Structure-stacks of flattened,membrane-bound sacs
Function-recieve vesicles from the ER modify the contents of vesicle, re-packages modified content in a vesicle,send to final destination
What is the structure and function of a lysosome in a Eukaryotic cell?
Structure-membrane bound vesicles containing digestive enzymes
Function-lysosome fuse w/ other vesicles or organelles &degrade the contents.
What is the Structure and Function of vacuoles in a Eukaryotic cell?
Structure-membrane bound vesicle containing a variety of different materials.
Function: Storage
What is the structure and function of the mitochondria in a Eukaryotic cell?
Structure-covered by a double membrane, bean shaped
Function-"power house of cell" reaction involved in cellular respiration (production of ATP)
What is the structure and function of chloroplast?
Structure-Bound by a double membrane only found in photosynthetic microbes
Function-site of reactions in photosynthesis
What are the 3 fiber types that make up the structure of the cytoskeleton and what are they composed of?
1.Microfilaments-protein called actin smallest fiber type
2.Intermediate filaments- long,twisted,fibrous proteins.
3.microtubules- largest fiber type,composed of protein called tubulin
What are the 3 fiber types that make up the structure of the cytoskeleton's functions?
1.Microfilaments- maintain cell shape motility compenent of cilia &flagella &psuedopodia
2.Intermediate filaments- Maintain cell shape, anchor organelles in place.
3.maintain cell shape,used as "tracks" to move organelles through the cell. motiliy component of cilia & flagella
What is the Structure and function of the cilia and flagella in a eukaryotic cell?
Structure: both hairlike extensions from surface of cell, both composed of microfilaments & tubules (9+2 pattern)
Cilia shorter(5-20 un)
Flagella larger (100-200 un)
Function: Motility movement by indulation
an increase in cellular components leading to an increase on cell size (approx
2x original size) leads to an increase om cell # is what?
Microbial growth
What are the steps of prokaryotes growth by binary fission? (there are 6)
1.DNA attaches to PM
2.DNA replicates
3.Two copies of move to opposite ends of cell
4.Membrane growth
5.Membrane & wall frowth at midsection- begins to pinch off
6.Cell daughters are created
What is the time to complete binary fission called? How long could it take?
"Generation Time" or "Doubling Time", varies by species

Could be less then 20 minuts however most species it is 1-3 hrs. some could take days or weeks
In a lab how are bacteria grown in a bathch-culture
1.Closed culture vessel
2.a set volume of medium
3.Constant environmental conditions
Explain the Lag phase.
First phase after inoculation of the new batch culture= little or no significant increase in cell #. 1)occurs because cells are adjusting to new environment. 2)as well as cells are synthesizing new cell components preparing to divide. 30 cells are also repairing damage from transfer.
Why may the long lag phase occur? (4 reasons)
1. Poor transfer technique causes excessive damage
2.Dramatic change in temp
3.Dramatic change in medium
4.Older cells have longer lag phase
What is the exponential phase?
It occurs after lag phase dramatic/maximum amount of cell # increase.Cells are most uniform in this phase then any other (better for study)
What is the stationary phase?
occurs after exponential phase-no significatn increase or decrease in cell #.
In the stationary phase why is there no change in cell #?
1. Cells have metabolic activity but dont divide
2.Balance between cell death and cell division.
Why does the stationary phase occur?
1.Nutrients become limited (greatest competition for nutrients in the phase)
2.Waste begins to alter pH (usually acidic) making environment inhospitable.
What is the death phase?
Final phase of batch culture exponential decrease in cell # complete lack of nutrients pH level becomes toxic.