Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
removal of all forms of microbial life and endospores
Any treatment used on inanimate objects to kill or inhibit growth of microorganisms
destruction of vegetative pathogens on living tissue
any change in a state of health; when part or all of the body is not "healthy"
a disease causing organism
the invasion or growth of microorganisms in the body
the degree of pathogenicity of a microorganism
the ability to ward off diseases through nonspecific and specific diseases
Chemical used to disinfect skin or membranes
A chemical method for disinfection of the skin or mucous membranes.
What is the chemical called that is used to kill or inhibit microbe growth?
transient flora
May be present for several days, weeks, months then disappear
normal flora
microorganisms that establish more/less permanent residence (colonize) but do not produce disease under normal conditions
disease primarily in the wild and domestic animals that can be transmitted to humans
systemic infection
generalized = systemic
microorganisms or products are spread through body by blood and/or lymph
localized infection
invading microorganisms are limited to a small area of the body
invokes an immune response/ a substance that invokes a specific immune response
give examples of zoonoses
Rabies (bats, skunks, foxes, dogs, and cats) Lyme disease (field mice), anthrax, ringworm
endemic disease
a disease constantly present in a population; common cold
epidemic disease
many people in a given area aquire a certain disease in a relatively short period; AIDS, std's
pandemic disease
an epidemic disease that occurs world wide; influenzas
the cause of disease
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
anaphylactic shock
a serious allergic reaction; involve IgE antibodies
What does LD50 stand for?
lethal dose for 50% of a population
What does ID50 stand for?
infectious dose for 50% of a sample population
What does LD50 stand for?
lethal dose for 50% of a population
What does ID50 stand for?
infectious dose for 50% of a sample population
microbial antagonism
Where there is competion between microbes
the upset of balance between normal microbiota and pathogenic microbes can result in...
Explain the process of inflammation
a)damage to body's tissues
b)vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels
c)phagocyte migration and phagocytosis of bacteria and cellular debris by macrophages and neutrophils.
d) tissue repair
Signs and symptoms of inflammation
(also loss of function)
Explain what happens during the tissue damage stage of inflammation
Once tissue is damaged, chemicals - histamine, kinins, prostaglandins and leukotrienes - are released by damaged cells.

A blood clot forms

Abscess starts to form
Explain what happens during vasodilation.
blood vessels enlarge or dilate.
during the second phase of inflammation, what happens?
Margination where phagocytes stick to endothelium

Emigration where phagocytes squeeze between endothelial cells

Phagocytosis of invading bacteria
What's the First line of defense mean?
physical barriers

chemical barriers

genetic barriers
Examples of physical barrier
skin, mucous membranes, oil, silia
Example of chemical barrier
tears, sweat
Example of genetic barrier
born w/HIV immunity

feline leukemia (nonhuman)
What's the 2nd line of defense?
-edema and chemotaxis
Interferon and pyrogen = fever
-ingest and eliminate (phagocytosis)
-extract antigens
What's the 3rd line of defense?
Specific Immune Response
-Humoral Response
*Five types:
The body's defense against particular pathogenic microorganisms also called specific resistance
Naturally acquired passive immunity examples
from mother to baby
Artificially acquired active immunity examples
from vaccinations
introduces specially prepared antigens(vaccines) into the body.
Naturally acquired active immunity
happens when person is exposed during daily life
Naturally acquired active immunity examples
chicken pox, measles, intestinal diseases
describe the structure of an antibody
4 poly peptide chains
2 heavy 2 light chains
2heavy chains are longer with more amino acids
describe the polypeptide chains in the structure of an antibody
each chain has a

constant portion: aa sequence the same

variable portion: the sequence is different/changed
-the changed shape better fits the antigen

Antigen binds to a portion
What is meant by a "good antigen"?
have these characteristics:

correct size

protein markers

must be non-self
inactivated vaccine
use microbes that have been killed.
attenuated vaccine
use living but weakened(attenuated) microbes.
Examples of attenuated vaccines:
MMR, polio (Sabin)
Examples of inactivated vaccines:
rabies, influenza, polia (salk)