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82 Cards in this Set

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Metabolism
sum of all chemical reactions going on in a cell or microorganism
Catabolism
breakdown of food materials for the release of food
Anabolism
building of new cellular compounds
Autotrophic organisms
radiant energy from the sun to chemical energy
heterotrophic organisms
require organic matter as source of energy
photosynthesis
autotrophic/ sun energy to chemical energy
photosynthesis equation
sunlight + 6H2O + 6CO2--> 6O2 + C6H12O11
reduced state
added electrons
oxidized state
removed electrons
carbohydrate function
energy storage, transport molecule
carbohydrate made of…
simple sugars like starch
protein function
structural support, protection, catalysis, transport, defense, regulation, movement
Protein made of…
amino acids
Nucleic acid Function
encode hereditary informatin bound in nucleotides
Nucleic acid made of…
DNA RNA
Lipids function
energy storage, cell membranes, capture of light energy, hormones, and vitamins, thermal insulation, electrical insulation of nerves, water repellency
Lipids made of…
fatty acids and glycerol like fats, oils and waxes
Which animals can break down cellulose? What are they called?
Herbivorous animals/protozoa, bacteria and funti in the digestive tract break down polysacchurides to disaccharides and monosaccharides
ATP
adenosine triphosphate/high energy molecule that releases a phosphate and causes a high energy release
ADP
adenosine diphosphate/missing a phosphate.
Glycolysis
catabolism of glucose, resulting in the production of pyruvic acid…in 10 steps, 2 ATP and 2 pyruvic acids are created
how is glycolysis initated
by adding 2 ATP
phosphorylation
addition of phosphorous to a molecule/substrate phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation
NAD
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
how is NAD used in glycolysis?
it is a carrier molecule and carries the H to the electron transport system
fermentation process and equation
No oxygen=fermentation/NADH reduced pyruvic acid to lactic acid or ethyl alcohol/ 2 pyruvic acid+2NADH-->2 lactic acid + 2 NAD
compare the amount of energy found in glucose with the energy found in ethyl alcohol
ethyl alcohol retains the energy contained from the beginning glucose cell.
specific example of fermentation
ethyl alcohol fermentation in yeast cells, saccaromyces ceravisae
resparation
using oxygen completely pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide and water with transfer of energy released from pyruvic acid to ADP
Krebs cycle in respiration--it converts pyruvic acid into what?
series of reactions where pyruvic acid is completely oxidized and H is transferred to carriers molecules such as NAD. It converts pyruvic acid to citric acid.
will fermentation alone meet the energy demands for human cells?
no because cells need more energy than that created by fermentation
where does glycosis take place in bacteria and in eukaryotic cells?
the cytoplasm
where does the krebs cycle take place in bacteria?
plasma membrane
where does the krebs cycle take place in eukaryotic cells?
inside the mitochondria
where are the enzymes found which catalyze the electron transport system in bacteria?
inner membrane of plasma membrane
where are the enzymes found which catalyze the electron transport system in eukaryotic cells
inner membrane of mitochondria
where are the various cytochromes which are involved in the electron transport system found in bacteria and eukaryotic cells?
Cytoplasmic membrane
How does the electron transport system play a role in the chemiosmotic theory of generation of ATP?
it uses cytochromes to carry electrons across the membrane
what is the role of oxygen in respiration
the terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain
how much ATP is produced from 1 molecule of glucose by a bacterial cell capable of undergoing respiration?
38
how much ATP is produced from 1 molecule of glucose by a eukarytic cell capable of undergoing respiration?
36
Metabolism
sum of all chemical reactions going on in a cell or microorganism
Catabolism
breakdown of food materials for the release of food
Anabolism
building of new cellular compounds
Autotrophic organisms
radiant energy from the sun to chemical energy
heterotrophic organisms
require organic matter as source of energy
photosynthesis
autotrophic/ sun energy to chemical energy
photosynthesis equation
sunlight + 6H2O + 6CO2--> 6O2 + C6H12O11
reduced state
added electrons
oxidized state
removed electrons
carbohydrate function
energy storage, transport molecule
carbohydrate made of…
simple sugars like starch
protein function
structural support, protection, catalysis, transport, defense, regulation, movement
Protein made of…
amino acids
Nucleic acid Function
encode hereditary informatin bound in nucleotides
Nucleic acid made of…
DNA RNA
Lipids function
energy storage, cell membranes, capture of light energy, hormones, and vitamins, thermal insulation, electrical insulation of nerves, water repellency
Lipids made of…
fatty acids and glycerol like fats, oils and waxes
Which animals can break down cellulose? What are they called?
Herbivorous animals/protozoa, bacteria and funti in the digestive tract break down polysacchurides to disaccharides and monosaccharides
ATP
adenosine triphosphate/high energy molecule that releases a phosphate and causes a high energy release
ADP
adenosine diphosphate/missing a phosphate.
Glycolysis
catabolism of glucose, resulting in the production of pyruvic acid…in 10 steps, 2 ATP and 2 pyruvic acids are created
how is glycolysis initated
by adding 2 ATP
phosphorylation
addition of phosphorous to a molecule/substrate phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation
NAD
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
how is NAD used in glycolysis?
it is a carrier molecule and carries the H to the electron transport system
fermentation process and equation
No oxygen=fermentation/NADH reduced pyruvic acid to lactic acid or ethyl alcohol/ 2 pyruvic acid+2NADH-->2 lactic acid + 2 NAD
compare the amount of energy found in glucose with the energy found in ethyl alcohol
ethyl alcohol retains the energy contained from the beginning glucose cell.
specific example of fermentation
ethyl alcohol fermentation in yeast cells, saccaromyces ceravisae
resparation
using oxygen completely pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide and water with transfer of energy released from pyruvic acid to ADP
Krebs cycle in respiration--it converts pyruvic acid into what?
series of reactions where pyruvic acid is completely oxidized and H is transferred to carriers molecules such as NAD. It converts pyruvic acid to citric acid.
will fermentation alone meet the energy demands for human cells?
no because cells need more energy than that created by fermentation
where does glycosis take place in bacteria and in eukaryotic cells?
the cytoplasm
where does the krebs cycle take place in bacteria?
plasma membrane
where does the krebs cycle take place in eukaryotic cells?
inside the mitochondria
where are the enzymes found which catalyze the electron transport system in bacteria?
inner membrane of plasma membrane
where are the enzymes found which catalyze the electron transport system in eukaryotic cells
inner membrane of mitochondria
where are the various cytochromes which are involved in the electron transport system found in bacteria and eukaryotic cells?
Cytoplasmic membrane
How does the electron transport system play a role in the chemiosmotic theory of generation of ATP?
it uses cytochromes to carry electrons across the membrane
what is the role of oxygen in respiration
the terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain
how much ATP is produced from 1 molecule of glucose by a bacterial cell capable of undergoing respiration?
38
how much ATP is produced from 1 molecule of glucose by a eukarytic cell capable of undergoing respiration?
36