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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Microbiology is the study of
bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and algae
Ubiquitous
microbes can be found everywhere
Eucaryotes
contain nuclei, arose from procaryotes, which do not contain nuclei
Microbes are involved in
nutrient production and energy flow
Photosynthesis
Algae and certain bacteria trap the sun's energy and produce food by this process
Humans use microbiology for
solving environmental, agricultural, and medical problems
Biotechnology
applies the power of microbes toward the manufacture of industrial products, foods and drugs
genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology
alter genetic material to produce new products and modified life forms
bioremediation
microbes are used to clean up pollutants and wastes in natural environments
pathogens
nearly 2000 microbes that cause infectious diseases resulting in high levels of mortality and morbidity.
emerging disease
newly identified pathogens gaining greater prominence
microbial cells
a) small, relatively simple, non-nucleated procaryotic variety or
b) larger, more complex eucaryotic type that contain a nucleus and organelles
viruses
microorganisms, but are not cells. They are smaller in size and infect their procaryotic or eucaryotic hosts in order to reproduce themselves
parasites
are free living microorganisms that cause damage to their hosts through infection and disease
Historial Notes
a)Science of about 200 yrs
b)Hundreds of contributors
First microscope
a)Leeuwenhoek
b)discoveries were called "animalcules"
scientific method
develops rational hypotheses and theories that can be tested
early microbiology blossomed with...
conceptual developments of sterilization, aseptic techniques, and the germ theory of disease
Taxonomy
hierachical scheme for the classification, identification, and nomenclature of organisms, which are grouped into categories called taxa, based on features ranging from general to specific
Taxa categories broad to specific
domain, kingdom, phylum (or division), class, order, family, genus, and species
binomial scientific names consist of
genus and species names
the latest classification scheme for living things is based on the
genetic structure of their ribosomes
Woese-Fox system recognizes often three domains:
a)Archaea; simple procaryotes that often live in exteme environments
b)Bacteria; typical procaryotes
c)Eukarya; all types of eucaryotic organisms
Alternative classification schemes uses a five-kingdom organization:
a)Kingdom Procaryotae (Monera), containing the eubacteria and the archea
b)Kingdom Protista, containing primitive unicellular microbes such as algae and protozoa
c)Kingdom Myceteae, containing the fungi
d)Kingdom Animalia, containing animals
e)Kingdom Plantae, containg plants
Primitive eucaryotes were ____________ celled
single
Endosymbiosis
A type of symbiosis in which one organism is found within another organism.
Endosymbiotic theory
The theory that eucaryotic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts arose when bacteria established an endosymbiotic relationship with the eucaryotic ancestor and then evolved into eucaryotic organelles. Ex:mitochondria and chloroplasts
Golgi apparatus (function)
A membranous eucaryotic organelle composed of stacks of flattened sacs (cisternae), which is involved in packaging and modifying materials for secretion and many other processes.
Name external structures on a eucaryotic cell
cilia, flagella, capsules, slime layers
chloroplast
A eucaryotic plastid that contains chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis.
Inside a eucaryotic flagella we typically find
a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules
main difference between procaryote and eucaryote
procaryotes lack a nucleus and lack membrane bound organelles. They have a cell wall composed of peptidoglycan
the eucaryotic cell nucleus
contains pores that allow for the passage of macromolecules across the nuclear membrane. Macromolecules are too large and therefore must pass through pores.
chromatin
The DNA-containing portion of the eucaryotic nucleus; the DNA is almost always complexed with histones. It can be very condensed (heterochromatin) or more loosely organized and genetically active (euchromatin).
microtubules
Small cylinders, about 25 nm in diameter, made of tubulin proteins and present in the cytoplasmic matrix and flagella of eucaryotic cells; they are involved in cell structure and movement.
microfilaments
Protein filaments, about 4 to 7 nm in diameter, that are present in the cytoplasmic matrix of eucaryotic cells and play a role in cell structure and motion.
lysosomes
contain a variety of enzymes that are invlolved in both the intracellular digestion of food particles and in the protection of the cell against invading microorganisms
(mitochondria) cristae
membrane folds; hold the enzymes and electron carriers of aerobic respiration to provide energy for the cell
Ribosomes are measured in ____________ due to their extremely small size
The unit used in expressing the sedimentation coefficient; the greater a particle's Svedberg value, the faster it travels in a centrifuge.
(we do not use typical metric measurements to measure ribosomes
diatom
single celled algae with silica in its cell wall
Rhizopus
genus of black bread mold
Histoplasma
fungal cause of Ohio Valley Fever
Cryptococcus
a yeast that infects the lungs
euglenid
motile flagellated alga with eye spots
dinoflagellate
alga that causes red tides
Trichomonas
flagellated protozoan genus that causes an STD
Entamoeba
the cause of amoebic dysentary
Plasmodium
the cause of malaria
Enterobius
helminth worm involved in pinworm infection
cell wall is found in which eucaryotes
fungi and algae (not protozoa)
almost all protozoa have a
trophozoite stage
the protozoan trophozoite is the
active feeding stage
all mature sporozoa are
parasitic and non motile
parasitic helminths reproduce with
eggs and sperm
most helminth infections act how
spread to major systems of the body