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36 Cards in this Set

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Phsychrophiles are organisms capable of growth at what temperature? Found Where?
0* Celcius, optimum temp. 15* Celcius/ Found in Arctic Environments
What are psychotrophs? What is their optimum growth temp?
Sometimes calles moderate phsychrophiles/ facultative phsychrophiles, grow best at refrigerator temps. 20-30*C
What are the most common microbes? What are their optimum temp?
Mesophiles/ opt temp of 25-40*C
A _______ is added to media to neutralize acids.
BUFFER
What is required by microbes to synthesize proteins and produce ATP?
NITROGEN AND SULFUR
What do aerobic organisms usually produce to break down Hydrogen Peroxide?
CATALASE H202---> H2O 02

*ANAEROBES LACK CATALASE
WHAT ARE AEROTOLERANT ANAEROBES?
CANNOT USE OXYGEN FOR GROWTH BUT TOLERATE IT FAIRLY WELL
E.G. BACTERIA THAT FERMENT CARBS TO LACTIC ACID
SINGLET OXYGEN?
NORMAL MOLECULAR OXYGEN (02) BOOSTED TO A HIGHER ENERGY STATE- EXTREMELY REACTIVE
SUPEROXIDE FREE RADICALS?
(O2-) FORMED IN SM.AMNTS. BY AEROBIC ORGANISMS. NEUTRALIZED BY SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE.
WHAT IS PEROXIDASE?
LIKE CATALASE, PEROXIDASE BREAKS DOWN TOXIC HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BUT WITHOUT PRODUCING OXYGEN.
WHAT IS THE HYDROXYL RADICAL?
(OH*) FORMED IN CYTOPLASM BY IONIZING RADIATION-BYPRODUCT OF AEROBIC RESPIRATION *MOST REACTIVE FORM*
WHAT ARE ORGANIC GROWTH FACTORS?
ORG. COMPOUNDS- VITAMINS, AMINO ACIDS, PYRIMIDINES- NEEDED FOR LIFE, GIVEN ORGANISM CANNOT SYNTHESIZE
CULTURE MEDIUM
ANY NUTRIENT MATERIAL PREPARED FOR GROWTH OF BACTERIA IN A LABORATORY
INOCULUM
MICROBES ADDED TO INITIATE GROWTH
WHAT IS AGAR'S MELTING POINT/SOLIDIFYING POINT?
MELTS-BOILING TEMP. WATER
REMAINS LIQUID UNTIL TEMP. DROPS TO 40*C
WHAT IS A COMPLEX MEDIA AND WHAT REQUIRES SUCH A MEDIA?
COMPLEX MEDIA- EXACT CHEMICAL COMPOSITION VARIES FROM BATCH TO BATCH.
HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA & FUNGI
WHAT MAKES UP A COMPLEX MEDIA?
YEAST, BEEF, PLANT, EXTRACTS
PEPTONES?
PARTIALLY DIGESTED PROTEIN PRODUCTS CONTAINED IN COMPLEX MEDIA
SOLUBLE VITAMINS AND MINERALS MAKE UP WHAT KIND OF MEDIUM? WHEN AGAR IS ADDED?
NUTRIENT BROTH/NUTRIENT AGAR
WHAT IS A REDUCING MEDIA/ WHAT REQUIRES THIS TYPE OF MEDIA?
THIS MEDIA CONTAINS INGREDIENTS (EG SODIUM THIOGLYCOLATE) THAT DEPLETE OXYGEN CONTENT-OBLG ANAEROBES
OXYRASE?
AN ENZYME ADDED TO GROWTH MEDIUM OF A PETRI PLATE AND TRANSFORMS IT INTO A SELF-CONTAINED ANAEROBIC CHAMBER
PURE CULTURES?
CULTURES THAT CONTAIN ONLY ONE KIND OF ORGANISM
WHAT BACTERIAL PRESERVATION METHOD INVOLVES PLACING CULTURE IN SUSPENDED LIQUID AT -50 TO -95*C?
DEEP-FREEZING
WHAT BACTERIAL PRESERVATION METHOD INVOLVES SUSPENDING CULTURE IN RAPIDLY FREEZING TEMPS AND A VACCUUM?
FREEZE-DRYING
GENERATION TIME?
TIME REQUIRED BY A CELL TO DIVIDE/ POPULATION TO DOUBLE
HOW ARE BACTERIAL POPULATIONS USUALLY GRAPHED?
LOGARITHMICALLY
LAG PHASE
PHASE OF DIVISION IN WHICH NO GROWTH IS APPARENT BUT METABOLIC ACTIVITY IS INTENSE
LOG PHASE
CELLS ARE REPRODUCING MOST ACTIVELY; REPRODUCTION TIME REACHES MINIMUM, BECOMES CONSTANT
STATIONARY PHASE
MICROBIAL DEATHS BALANCE NUMBER OF NEW CELLS
DEATH PHASE/ LOGARITHMIC DECLINE
NUMBER OF DEATHS EXCEEDS NUMBER OF NEW CELLS FORMED
SERIAL DILUTION METHOD?
DILUTIONS OF BACTERIAL SUSPENSION DISTRIBUTED INTO SUITABLE SOLID MEDIUM-COLONIES APPEARED COUNTED
MOST PROBABLE NUMBER METHOD?
MPN-SAMPLE DILUTED OUT IN SERIES OF TUBES OF LIQUID MEDIUM-THE GREATER THE BACTERIA, THE MORE DILUTIONS
DIRECT MICROSCOPIC COUNT
MEASURED VOL. BACTERIAL SUSPENSION PLACED IN DEFINED AREA- USES DESIGNS
TURBIDITY
ABSORBANCE/OPTICAL DENSITY
METABOLIC ACTIVITY
MICROBIAL NUMBERS THAT ARE ESTIMATED BY TIME REQUIRED TO PRODUCE ACID/OTHER PRODUCTS
DRY WEIGHT
MEASURING WEIGHT- FILAMENTOUS ORGANISMS (ACTINOMYCETE BACTERIA/FUNGI)