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207 Cards in this Set

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Phramaceutical Phase
The basic principles governing the introduction of drugs into the body
Drugs
Substances capable of changing a living system. A.) Topical; B.) Inhaled, C.) Ingested, D. Injected
Pharmacology
The study of the interaction between drugs and the body
Therapeutic effects of a drug
Drug possess beneficial traits or effects
Toxix effects of a Drug
Drug possess detrimental traits or effects
Toxicology
The study of poisonous drug effects.
Pharmacy
Deals with the formulation, dispensing of and legal aspects of drugs.
Pharmacotherapeutics
Is concerned with the use of drugs to treat pathophysiologic conditions.
Therapeutic agent
Agent --> provides symptomatic treatment
Chemotherapeutic agent
Penicillin --> Treats the cause. Includes antimicrobials which treat infections.
Antineoplastics
Chemotherapeutic agents which are anticancer therapies.
Pharmacokinetics
The study of movement of drugs between different components in the body.
Pharmacodynamics
The study of biochemical and physiologic mechanisms of drug action.
Chemotherapy
Treatment of disease with chemicals (drugs) taken into the body.
Selective toxicity
Drugs must act with in the host where they kill the harmful organism without damaging the host.
Synthetic drugs
Synthesized in the lab (also semisynthetic drugs).
Antibiotics
Are produced by microorganisms.
Dr. Paul Ehrlich
German who speculated to treat pathogen w/o harming host. Discovered Salvarsan, an arsenic derivative.
Sulfa drugs
Chemotherapeutic agents discovered in the 1930's. Inhibits folic acid synthesis.
Penicillin
Discovered in 1928, not used until 1940. Produced by pencillum fungi growth. Effective against Gram + organisms like S. aureus.
Penicillinase (or B-Lactamases)
Enzyme that breaks down (B-Lactam ring) penicillin and causes resistance to the drug.
Semisynthetic Penicillins (action)
Lab made to extend the natural spectrum of penicillin. May also be causing resistence (e.g. methicillin -> MRSA).
Semisynthetic penicillins (used in treatments)
Narrow Spectrum: Oxacillin (some resistance developing) and Nafcillin. Broad Spectrum: Ampicillin and amoxicillin
Penicillin + B-Lactamase Inhibitors
Combine penicillins w/ clavalanic acid (non-competitive inhibitor of pencillinase) (e.g. Augmentin)
Cephalosporin
Structural backbone and mode of action resembles Penicillin. Can be used as substitute.
Vancomycin
Used in penicillin-resistant strains of Gram + or Gram - organisms.
Narron spectrum antibiotic
Affects relatively few bacteria (as opposed to broad spectrum ones).
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
Antimicrobial drugs that target the peptidoglycan layer. More for Gram + than Gram - b/c thicker layer. Human cells don't have.
Antimicrobials that effect cell walls
Include drugs like penicillin, cephalosporins, bacitracin (topical only) -- fight Gram + organisms
Inhibition of protein synthesis
Antimicrobial drugs that react with ribosomes of bacteria (different in Eucaryotes)
Antimicrobials that effect protein synthesis
Chloramphenicol, gentamicin (toxic), erythromycin (can be toxic), tetracyclines (not for kids), streptomycin
Injury to Plasma Membrane
Antimicrobial drugs that effect the membrane permeability of microbes cells. Loss of impt metabolites occur from these changes. (Can effect humans.)
Chloramphenical (action)
Broad spectrum inhibitor of protein synthesis.
Chloramphenical (side effects)
May cause blood disorder (aplastic anemia).
Chloramphenical (used to treat)
Drug of choice for typhoid fever, certain types of meningitis (risks justified).
First Broad Spectrum Antibiotic
Chloramphenicol (Toxic). Diffuses into nervous system.
First Synthetic Antibiotic
Chloramphenicol: Causes Grey Syndrome: accumulates in newborns blood causing toxic rxn & sudden breakdown of cardiovascular system.
Aminoglycosides (action)
Class of antimicrobials that effect protein synthesis.
Aminoglycosides (side effects)
Sometimes toxic to the auditory nerve or the kidneys.
Aminoglycosides (examples)
Include streptomycin, neomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin.
Streptomycin
Aminoglycoside that treats TB
Neomycin
Aminoglycoside that is a topical ointment. Called Neosporin when combined with Bacitracin and Polymyxin B. Poorly absorbed by GI tract.
Gentamicin
Aminoglycoside that is effective against most Gram - (especially Psuedomonas/UTI's). Ototoxic and nephrotoxic.
Tobramycin
Aminoglycoside that is an aerosol treatment of Cystic Fibrosis patients with psueodomonads (opportunist)
Tetracycline (action)
Broad spectrum inhibitor of protein synthesis.
Tetracycline (used to treat)
Effective against atypical pneumonia, syphillis, gonorrhea, pneumococcal pneumonia, some protozoa dz, chlamydia and richettsias, Gram - orgs
Tetracycline (side effects)
Can cause tooth discoloration, liver disease, stunted growth (children). Restrict use in pregnant women, children thru teens.
Antimicrobials that effect Plasma Membranes
Antifungal agents such as polymycin, nystatin, miconazole, ketaconazole, amphotericin B. These drugs combine w/sterols to disrupt fungal plasma membranes.
Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Synthesis
These antimicrobials (More toxic) host DNA and RNA are close to microbial DNA/RNA. These drugs have limited clinical application.
Antimicrobials effecting nucleic acid synthesis
Rifampincin (inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase), Quinolones (inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase -- an enzyme).
Inhibiting the synthesis of essential metabolites
Antimicrobials that competitively inhibit the synthesis of folic acid (humans don't synthesize, bacteria do). Resembles the metabolite para-aminobenzoic acid that is required to synthesize folic acid.
Macrolides (action)
Antimicrobial that inhibits protein syntheis.
Macrolides (precautions)
Should not be taken by pregnant women
Macrolides (examples)
Class includes Erythromycin and Azithromycin
Erythromycin (use)
Macrolide used to treat infections resistent to penicillin.
Erythromycin (dz treated)
legionellosis, atypical pneumonia (mycoplasmal), newborns w/neisseria & chlamydia (eyes)
Azithromycin
(Zithromax) Macrolide that is more broad spectrum than Erythromycin. Penetrates tissues better.
Nystatin (used to treat)
Antifungal drug for Candida albicans (effects intestines, vaginal canal and oral cavity).
Nystatin (action)
Changes permeability of cell membrane by combining w/fungal sterol.
Amphotericin B (used to treat)
Antifungal for systemic infections. (Ketoconazole is used as a subsitute.)
Amphotericin B (action/effects)
Degrades fungal cell membrane. Causes wide variety of side effects. Used in potential fatal cases.
Acyclovir
Antiviral. Incorporates in viral DNA during the replication cycle of Herpes Simplex & cyto megalo viruses.
Interferons (action)
Natural/synthetically engineered, provokes host cells to produce antiviral proteins and the stimulate NK cells into action.
Interferons (used to treat)
FDA approved for use treating Hep B, Genital warts and a type of Leukemia.
Cell
Basic unit structure of all living things
Robert Hooke
Coined the word cell, which means "box."
Bacterial cells
Unicellular organisms
Humans
Multicellular organisms
Viruses
Psuedo-organism which has a structure, not a cell. Has nucleic acid and protein coat.
Nucleus
The brain of a cell. It regulates functions, genes, and instructions inside DNA (found in chromosomes)
Muscle cell
An example of a multinucleated cell within animals.
Red blood cell
This cell's only job to transport O2 and has its nucleus expelled.
Bacterial cell (contents)
It's only contents are nucleoid material plus simple chromosomes
Prokaryote
Literally means "Pre"-nucleus/ "no" nucleus. Organisms which are only bacteria
Eubacteria
Name means"true" bacteria.
Archeobacteria
Name means "ancient" bacteria (found in unusual places).
Linnaeous
Developed binomial system of naming organism by Genus and species.
Characteristics of a cell
Its characteristics are: 1.) Reproduction 2.) Food for an energy source, 3.) "Food" --> synthesize things, 4.) Excretes waste, 5.) Respond to a stimulus, 6.) Mutateable
Taxonomy
Science of the classification of an organism
Taxonomic order
The order would include: Kingdom, Phyllum, Class, Order, Family, Genus (Homo), and Species (sapiens).
Ways nutrients obtained
1.) Absorption, 2.) Photosynthesis, 3.) Ingestion
Five Kingdoms
1.) Monera , 2.) Protista, 3.) Fungi, 4.) Plants and 5.) Animals
Whitaker
Came up w/clasification system based on how nutrients are obtained.
Kingdom of Monera
Bacteria (eu- & archeo). Mostly absorb nutrients, some use photosynthesis (cynobcteria)
Animal Kingdom
Multicellular organisms that injest nutrients
Fungi Kingdom
Organisms that mainly absorb nutrients
Plant Kingdom
Organisms that mainly use photosynthesis for nutrients. (Higher algae)
Endosymbiotic Theory
The theory that a bacterial cell found its way into a primitive eukaryote animal/plant cell and eventually became mitochondria/chlorophyll.
Major groups of microorganisms
Protozoa, Fungi, Algae, Bacteria (and viruses are an add-on)
Rigid outer cell wall
Helps prevent organisms that absorb their nutrients from bursting (plants & bacteria)
Protozoa (defined)
Animal-like (injest nutrients) microorganisms
Protozoa (characteristics)
The characteristics of these include: Mostly H2O based, lack chlorophyll, lacks rigid cell wall, may have cilia or flagella (can be mobile).
Protozoa (examples)
Amoebas and Sporozoans are examples of these.
Amoebas
A protozoan that moves by endoplasmic streaming, psuedopods.
Sporozoans
A life stage within certain types of protozoas (dormancy stage) in order to survive harsh conditions.
Algae
Microorganism that is water-based, Eukaryote. Can be unicellular or multicellular (macroscopic), like pond scum
Algae (pros & cons)
Can cause plumbing problems. Can be used as thickeners/emulsifier. Create antiinflammatory drugs. Used for agar.
Fungi (characteristics)
Eukaryotes, rigid walled (absorb nutrients), Lacks chlorophyll
Fungi (examples)
Mold and yeast
ariel state
Non-metabolically active state of mold where organism becomes a spore to survive harsh environment.
bacteria
Prokaryotes, rigid cell wall (absorb nutrients), do not have many organelles (only ribosomes)
bacteria (types)
eubacteria or archeobacteria
bacteria (shapes)
rod (bacillus), round (coccus), rod with wiggle (spirillium), rod with comma (vibrio)
Clostridium
Spore forming genus name
Bacillus subtilis
Spore forming genus name
Streptococcus pyrogenes
Can cause many diseases depending on portal of entry: scarlet fever, strep throat.
ratio of human: bacteria cell
1:10 (>50% of feces is bacteria)
Chemistry
Science that deals with the interaction of atoms and molecules
matter
made up of repeating units called atoms
atoms
combine to form molecules, which combine to form compounds,
atomic nucleus
composed of protons (positively charged) and neutrons (no charge)
orbit / energy shells
area of electrons (negatively charged)
neutrons
neutral particles, equal with the number of electrons
atomic number
number of protons
atomic weight
# protons plus # neutrons
isotope
#protons stays same, #neutrons changes, atomic weight chgs
valence electrons
# electrons in outermost shell
octet rule
atom content if outer shell is full
ionic bond
one atom transfers electrons from one atom to another
covalent bond
atoms share a pair of electrons
hydrogen bond
attraction of H nucleus to a negatively charged O or N atom
ionic bonds (examples)
NaCl
polar covalent bond (example)
H2o
synthesis reaction
A + B = AB (endergenic)
decomposition
AB = A + B + energy (exogenic)
exchange
AB + CD = AC + BD (part decomposition/part synergy)
chemical energy
occurs when old bonds destroyed, new formed.
charge of bacteria
slightly negative
carbon skeleton
substance has a carbon-based framework with a "R group" as its functional group.
carbohydrates
Water carbon C6H12O6 divide by 6--> CH2O (polysaccharides, disaccharides, monosacharides)
lipids
C, H, O w/o 2:1 ratio btwn H and O. Simple lipids are dietary fats like triglycerides. Complex lipids have N, O, P attached, like phospholipids, cell membranes, or sterols.
mycoplasm
bacteria that lack a cell wall, but has sterols to back the walls, which effects the outcome of staining techniques
proteins
Chains of amino acids (amine groups) linked togethter with peptide bonds. C, H, O, and N grouped together.
proteins (examples)
Can serve as enzymes, transportation, regulation, motility, antibodies, hormones, sterools, anything that gives structure, actin, myosin, collagen, bacteriocinogens (to kill bacteria), exotoxins
proteins (role for AA)
Serve as the building blocks for amino acids - 20 different (10 essential/10 nonessential)
L-form of amino acid
the most common natural form of an amino acid found in nature, which grows in a spherical shape and bends light to left
D-form of amino acid
mirror image of the L-form of amino acid, bends to the right, referred to as a steroisomer, sometimes are bacteria or drug.
glycine
simplest amino acid (no mirror image possible)
1° Primary structure
Structure like shoe laces. A genetically determined exact sequence of amino acids that make up the protein.
2° Secondary structure
Structure like string through the shoe. Twisting and folding of the polypeptide chain that may be due to H-bonds or ionic bonds or hydrophobi/philic characteristics of the protein structure.
3° Tertiary structure
Structure like tieing a bow. The 3-D structure determines function. The functional product is based on the 3-D shape due to hydrogen, covalent or ionic bonds.
4° Quarternary Structure
Structure not present in all proteins. At least 2 polpeptide chains in 3 structure combine to form object. Linked together with disulfide bridges, like hemoglobin.
lipids (examples)
Include fats, phospholipids, and steroids
fats
Category of lipids that include a (3) carbon alcohol (glycerol) plus one (+) fatty acid: one FA= monacylglycerol, 2 FA= diacylglycerol, 3 FA= tricylglycerol
saturated fatty acid
A category of lipids that contains all the hydrogens it can have.
unsaturated fatty acid
A category of lipids that has lost at least (2) H atoms and contains a double bond btwn at least 2 C atoms.
Phospholipid
A lipid that substitutes phosphoic acid (H2PO4) for one fatty acid. HPO4 gets attached to another charged group, making that end able to attach to H2O.
Steroid
A lipid that has a four ring C structure. It includes cholesterol, steroid hormones, vitamin D, found in the cell membranes of animal cells and in the bacteria mycoplasms.
Hydrocarbons
Chains of C atoms with their associated H.
alcohol
A class of organic compound that contains one or more hydroxyl group -OH.
aldehyde
a class of organic compound that contains one or more carboNyl group -COH.
Organic acid
a class of organic compound that contains one or more carboXyl group -COOH.
Ketone
a class of organic compound that contains one or more ketone C=O
amino group
The functional group without the O, or -NH2. Found in amino acids, account for the N in proteins.
monosaccharide
Carbon chain plus several alcohol groups plus one other functional group. Several have isomers.
disaccharides
Two monosaccharides combine (H2O byproduct) forming a glycosidic bond.
polysaccharide
Multiple monosaccharide combine linked by glycosidic bonds.
Nucleic acids
DNA (double helix) and RNA (the single strands: messenger, transfer and rRNA- replicative)
Nucleotides
(5) - C sugar plus phosphate plus nitrogenous base.
DNA (N-bases)
Pyrimindines: Thymine (T) and Cyosine (C); and Purines: Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)
RNA (N-bases)
Pyrimindines: Uracil (U) instead of Thymine (T), along with Cyosine (C); and Purines: Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)
Complementary Nucleic Acid Base Pairs
Adenine (A) pairs with Thmine (T) or Uracil (U) with RNA; Cyosine (C) pairs with Guanine (G)
Mutations
Changes in the sequence in Nitrogenous bases.
ATP
Adenosine tri-phosphate: stores cellular energy in phosphate bonds
ADP
Adenosine di-phosphate: lowered formed of stored cellular energy in phosphate bonds from ADP.
Heat fix bacteria slide
The process of adhering microorganisms to a slide by air drying then flaming to kill them.
Chromophore
The ion that contains the pigment.
Basic dye
Dye which contains positively charged chromophores - will adhere to bacterial cells which are generally slightly negative on surface.
Acidic dye
Dye which contains negatively charged chromophores - will repel from the surface of bacterial cells which are generally slightly negative.
Basic dye (examples)
Dyes that adhere to bacteria include: crystal violet (purple), safranin (pink/red), methylene blue (blue), Malachite green, and Carbol fuschin (deep pink)
Acidic dye (examples)
Dyes repeled by organisms include: India ink (grey background), Eosin (reddish) and Acid fusion
Types of staining
Simple stain (one dye, like methylene blue); differential stain (2+ stains, like a Gram or Acid fast stain); Special Stain (capsule, spore, flagella stains)
Gram stain (steps)
Steps: 1.) HFBS, 2.) Primary stain (CV) 30-60 secs; 3.) Iodine (mordant) 10 - 30 secs; 4.) Decolorization (Acetone-alcohol) 10 drops; 5.) Counter stain (safranin) 30-60 secs; rinse w/H2O after steps.
Gram stain (results)
After stain: Gram + retain 1st stain, look purple, b/c thicker peptidoglycan layer; Gram - loose 1st stain, look pink, thiNNer peptidoglycan layer; Gram variable - pink/purple
Gram non-reactive
These cells do not stain easily b/c there is no peptidoglycan wall, e.g. gum cells (squamous cells) s/b pink after Gram stain.
Acid fast stain (steps)
Steps: 1.) HFBS, 2.) Primary stain (carbol fuschin) place 5 min over boiling water; 3.) Decolorize (ACID-alcohol) 10 drops; 4.) Secondary stain (methylene blue); rinse after steps
Acid fast stain (results)
If org has mycolic acid (waxy protein), then retains primary stain (deep pink/purple); if non-acid fast, takes secondar stain only (blue).
Capsule stain
Creates a halo in organisms with capsules or have slime layers -- which tend to be slippery org (e.g. pneumococcal pneumonia)/have polysac polpept, or both layers
Brightfield microscope
This microscope uses a light source, view stained specimens, not useful for viruses.
Dark field microscope
This microscope used for viewing microorganisms that are still alive to get a sense of size and shape.
Electron microscope
This microscope views objects @ 100K - 200K x. Kills org w/electrons. Good for dead specimens, viruses, & internal structures
Scanning microscope
This microscope enables you to see the surface features of a cell like a relief map. Can also see viruses. (Not to be confused w/power.)
prokaryote cells (features)
1.) Genetic material (DNA), 2.) single circular chromosome, not contained nucleus, lack membrane bound organelles, 3.) lacks certain proteins, 4.) most have cell wall (peptidoglycan layer), 4.) divide by binary fission process.
eukaryotic cell (features)
1.) Has nucleus w/nuclear membrance, 2.) DNA associated w/stabilization proteins (histones), 3.) mitotic spindles, 4.) cytoplasm has organelles, 5.) may/may not have cell wall, never a peptidoglycan layer.
monomorphic
to maintain a single characteristic shape
pleomorphic
exhibits irregular morphology (shape) - probably getting old
glycocalyx (dental plaque)
Can be either: capsule (indicates virulence). Composed of polysaccharide, polypeptide or combo of both - organized. Or slime layer - disorganized, loosely attached to cell wall.
monotrichous
one flagella at either end of pole
lophotrichious
two + bundle of flagella at one end
amphitrichous
two flagella: one at each end
peritrichous
flagella surrounding the organism
atrichous
no flagella
org. movement
clockwise/counterclockwise rotation, synchronized (directional), towards/away, run/swim, random (tumble)
taxis
movement to or from a stimulus
chemotaxis
swim towards or away from a chemical
phototaxis
swim towards or away from light
a run
movement lasting longer than a tumble (1 sec - 10-20x length of body)
serovar
a strain or subspecies/ variations w/in a species (e.g. H-antigen - certain type of protein marker)
axial filaments (endoflagella)
spirochete: rotates like a corkscrew
fimbrae (pili)
hairlike appendages, adheres to a surface protein - indicate virulence
sex pilus
extra packet of DNA that makes it drug resistant (MRSA, C. diff)
sediment
settling in the bottom of a test tube
flocculent
thick with a lot of cloudy growth in a test tube
pellicle
skin or film at the top of liquid surface in a test tube (org needs O2)
relative size (typical bacteria)
red blood cell about 7.5um vs largest bacteria about 2-5 um
Glycan portion
CHO portion of peptidoglycan layer - 2 sugars N-acteylmuranic acid (NAM) and N-actylglucosomine (NAG)
Peptide portion
Peptide portion of peptidoglycan "bonds" to NAM to create "cross linkages"