Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/42

Click to flip

42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Brain cysts, seizures
Taenia solium

("Neurocysticercosis"--usually 7-10 slow-growing cysts. When they die they trigger inflammation which exacerbates symptoms)
Liver cysts
Echinococcus granulosus

Eggs in dog feces--when ingested, forms larvae that penetrate intestine and form round fluid-filled "hydatid" cysts (divide and grow up to 5-10 cm). Cause anaphylaxis if cyst contents spill out.
B12 deficiency
Diphyllobothrium latum (Fish Tapeworm)
Biliary tract disease
Clonorchis sinensis (?)
Hemoptysis
Paragonimus westermani (?)
Portal hypertension
Schistosoma mansoni
Hematuria, bladder cancer
Schistosoma haematobium
Microcytic anemia
Ancylostoma; Necator
Perianal pruritus
Enterobius
Which helminth?--
Undercooked pork; Mass lesions in the brain.
Taenia solium - "cysticercosis"

- Tapeworm
- Praziquantel/niclosamide; Albendazole for cysticercosis
Which helminth?--
Dog feces; liver cysts and anaphylaxis
Echinococcus granulosus

- Tapeworm
- Albendazole
Which helminth?--
Snails; granulomas, fibrosis, and inflammation of the spleen and liver
Schistosoma

- Trematodes (Blood Flukes)
- Adults (mom and dad) live in venous system. Eggs enter circulation and deposit in venous walls (e.g. of the portal system), causing formation of granulomas -> portal HTN.
- Praziquantel
Which helminth?--
Larvae penetrate skin of feet; Iron-deficiency anemia
Necator & Ancylostoma (hookworm)

- Nematode
- Adult worm "hooks" onto intestinal wall with its mouth and causes bleeding
- Mebendazole
Which helminth?--
Eggs are ingested; Intestinal infection can cause abdominal cramping, malnutrition; Dry cough and fever possibly.
Ascaris lumbricoides

- Malnutrition from competition for nutrition.
- Dry cough and fever while larvae are in the lungs.
- Can also cause intestinal obstruction ("Wormy people")
- Rx: Mebendazole
Which helminth?--
Intestinal infection: Larvae penetrate skin of feet; Larvae, but not eggs, are excreted in feces.
Strongyloides

-
Which helminth?--
Can cause life-threatening autoinfection in immunosuppressed pts.
Strongyloides

- Eggs hatch inside intestines, and larvae invade intestinal wall to repeat life cycle. Patients put on prednisone can have massive invasion of lungs and other organs -> pneumonia, ARDS, multi-organ failure.

-Mebendazole
Which helminth?--
Intestinal infection; Eggs are ingested; Does not invade intestinal wall.
Enterobeus (pinworm)

- "Scotch tape test"
- Only comes out at night... to lay eggs.
Which helminth?--
Inflammation of muscle (muscle aches) and fever due to intramuscular cysts; periorbital edema.
Trichinella spiralis

- Undercooked pork.
- Infection occurs from ingesting encysted larvae that mature into Mom and Dad. Mom invades intestinal mucosa and released eggs become encysted in skeletal muscle.
- Diagnosis: muscle biopsy and/or serologic tests.
- Rx: Mebendazole/Thiobendazole have little effect on muscle larvae but may be helpful.
Which helminth?--
In drinking water (What's the host?); Skin inflammation and ulceration (Why?).
Dracunculus (Guinnea worm)

- Live as larval form in tiny crustacean hosts (which we drink in dirty water).
- Adult migrates to skin and causes ulceration so it can stick out its uterus and release eggs into water.
Which helminth?--
Transmitted by deer fly; causes swelling in skin (can see worm crawling in conjunctiva)
Loa loa

Rx: Diethylcarbamazine
Which helminth?--
Transmitted by black fly; causes River Blindness
Onchocerca volvulus

- Larvae transmitted by black fly; larvae develop into Mom and Dad (which coil up in fibrous nodules in skin) and produce *microfilariae*
- Microfilariae migrate through dermis and connective tissue.
- Blindness occurs if they migrate to the eye.
- Intraepithelial granulomas form in areas of migration--thickened skin is dry and scaly ("Lizard skin")
Which helminth?--
Visceral larva migrans
Toxocara canis (Dog roundworm)

- Ingestion of food contaminated with dog feces.
- Can cause blindness if in retina (chorioretinitis)
Which helminth?--
Granulomas in retina leading to blindness
Toxocara canis (Dog roundworm)

- Ingestion of food contaminated with dog feces.
- Also causes Visceral larva migrans
Which helminth?--
Transmitted by mosquito; causes Elephantiasis
Wuchereria bancrofti

- Adults live in lymphatics of genitals and lower extremities. With repeated exposures, fibrosis around accumulated dead microfilariae clogs lymphatics and causes edema (swelling) of the legs and genitals, which become covered with thick, scaly skin.
- Rx: Diethylcarbamazine (an elephant between 2 Ethyls in a car--"Di-Ethyl-car")
Which helminth?--
Undercooked fish; causes inflammation of the biliary tract.
Clonorchis sinensis
(Trematode/Fluke)

- Rx: Praziquantel
Which helminth?--
Undercooked crab meat; causes inflammation and secondary bacterial infection of the lung.
Paragonimus westermani
(Trematode/Fluke)

- Rx: Praziquantel
Tell me about--
Taenia Solium
(Tapeworm)
1. Pigs ingest EGGS. Eggs become larvae; larvae migrate into tissue and muscle and become CYSTICERCUS (fluid-filled bladder with larval form inside).
--*Humans* ingest cysticercus, which becomes adult tapeworm in intestines.

2. Humans ingest EGGS. Eggs become larvae; larvae migrate throughout body and form CYSTICERCI--most commonly in muscle and brain.

Neurocysticercosis: 7-10 cysts in the brain; cause seizures, obstructive hydrocephalus, or focal neruologic deficits. Dead cysts trigger inflammation and worsening of symptoms.
Tell me about--
Echinococcus granulosus
(Tapeworm)
- Eggs in dog feces
- Larvae form "hydatid" cysts in liver.
- Anaphylaxis if material within cyst spills out.
Tell me about--
Schistosoma mansoni; Schistosoma haematobium
(Fluke)
- Larvae mature within SNAILS; mature larvae ("cercariae") penetrate human skin.
- Mom and Dad live in veins of intestine (mansoni) or bladder (haematobium).
- Released eggs deposit in venous walls and cause *granulomas, fibrosis, and inflammation of the spleen and liver*.
Tell me about--
Clonorchis sinensis

1. Source
2. Clinical manifestation
3. Rx
(Fluke)
Undercooked fish; causes inflammation of the biliary tract.
- Rx: Praziquantel
Tell me about--
Paragonimus westermani

1. Source
2. Clinical manifestation
3. Rx
(Fluke)
Undercooked crab meat; causes inflammation and secondary bacterial infection of the lung (e.g. hematuria).
- Rx: Praziquantel
Tell me about--
Ancylostomas & Necator

1. Route of infection
2. Life cycle
3. Rx
(Nematodes/Roundworms)
aka Hookworm
- Larvae penetrate skin of feet
- Travels into lungs and trachea; coughed up and swallowed into intestines.
- Feces contains EGGS.
- Hooks onto intestinal wall with mouth--causes IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

Rx: Mebendazole
Tell me about--
Ascaris lumbracoides

1. Route of infection
2. Life cycle
3. Rx
(Nematode/Roundworm)
- Ingested as eggs
- Invades intestinal wall; travel into lungs and trachea; coughed up and swallowed back into intestines.
- Feces contains EGGS.
- Can cause malnutrition, intestinal obstruction, and pulmonary symptoms when worm is in lungs.

Rx: Mebendazole
Tell me about--
Enterobius vermicularis

1. Route of infection
2. Life cycle
3. Rx
(Nematode/Roundworm)
aka Pinworm
- Ingested as eggs (from anus -> hand -> food)
- Does not invade; Becomes adult in intestines.
- Adult worm migrates to anus at NIGHT to lay eggs. Causes ANAL PRURITUS.

Rx: Mebendazole
Tell me about--
Strongyloides stercoralis

1. Route of infection
2. Life cycle
3. Rx
(Nematode/Roundworm)
- Larvae in soil penetrate skin of foot
- Travels into lungs and trachea; coughed up and swallowed into intestines.
- Eggs mature into larvae WITHIN THE INTESTINES and can undergo (a) Autoinfection, (b) Direct cycle (larvae passed in feces; larvae invade skin again), or (c) Indirect cycle (larvae passed in feces, become boy & girl and mate, produce eggs that hatch in soil and mature into larvae, invade skin again).
- Feces contains LARVAE, not eggs.

Rx: Ivermectin, thiabendazole
Tell me about--
Trichinella spiralis
(Nematode/Roundworm)
- Ingestion of undercooked pork containing encysted larvae.
- Female adults penetrate into intestinal mucosa and release eggs. Eggs become larvae. Larvae travel to muscles and become encysted.
- CAUSES: inflammation of muscle, periorbital edema.

Rx: Thiabendazole
Tell me about--
Dracunculis medinensis

1. How is it transmitted?
2. Causes...
3. Rx
(Nematode--Microfilariae)
a.k.a. Guinne worm
- In drinking water (larval hosts are tiny crustaceans); causes skin inflammation and ulceration.

Rx: Niridazole (or a stick to wind the worm around)
Tell me about--
Loa loa


1. How is it transmitted?
2. Causes...
3. Rx
(Nematode--Microfilariae)
- Transmitted by DEER FLY
- Causes swelling in skin (can see worm crawling in conjunctiva)

Rx: Diethylcarbamazine
Tell me about--
Onchocerca volvulus


1. How is it transmitted?
2. Causes...
3. Rx
(Nematode--Microfilariae)
- Transmitted by BLACK FLY
- Causes River Blindness; Skin nodules (containing adult worms); Pruritic rash with darkened pigmentation, Lizard skin (Allergic reaction to migrating microfiliarae)

Rx: Ivermectin
Tell me about--
Toxocara canis


1. How is it transmitted?
2. Causes...
3. Rx
(Nematode--Microfilariae)
- Food contaminated with eggs of dog roundworm
- Causes granulomas (blindness if in retina--chorioretinitis); Visceral larva migrans

Rx: Diethylcarbamazine
Tell me about--
Wuchereria bancofti

1. How is it transmitted?
2. Causes...
3. Rx
(Nematode--Microfilariae)
- Transmitted by mosquito
- Causes blockage of lymphatic vessels (ELEPHENTIASIS)

Rx: Diethylcarbamazine
Diphyllobothrium Lata
(Fish Tapeworm)
- causes B12 DEFICIENCY