Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How do most microorganisms get to CNS?
Through blood
Name 3 mechanisms of meningitis
- Infect cells lining barrier

- Passively transported across barrier in vacuoles

- Carried across barrier in infected leukocytes
Organisms causing meningitis in neonates
Strep B - Strep. agalactiae


Listeria monocytogenes
Organisms causing meningitis in infants and children
S. pneumoniae

N. meningitidis

H. influenzae
What is the most important virulence factor of organisms causing acute meningitis?
CAPSULE - antiphagocytic, allows to escape immune system
What are the symptoms of clinical infant meningitis
Nuchal rigidity, opisthotonos, bulging fontanelle, convulsions, photophobia, lethargy, irritability, seizures, coma
What are the cardinal signs of meningitis

Nuchal rigidity

What are two physical signs that could be performed and are indicative of presence of meningitis
Kernigs sign + Brudzinskis sign
If patient has maculopapular or petechial rash with the signs of meningitis, it is indicative of what type of meningitis
Gram positive diplococci
Pneumococcal meningitis usually follows _
Bacteremia, sinusitis or otitis media
Which patients are in higher risk of pneumococcal meningitis
Sickle cell patients

Patients with asplenia

Are cardinal signs of meningitis present in pneumococcal meningitis
How do you diagnose pneumococcal meningitis
Culture (CSF and blood) + Gram stain CSF

What is the best treatment for pneumococcal meningitis
Third generation cephalosporins
Which drugs for treatment of pneumococcal meningitis is contraindicated in children
Name vaccine against pneumococcal meningitis
Heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine - 2-23 months + for older children at high risk 2-5 years old

After 5 years old - 23 valent vaccine

Shape + Stain
Gram negative diplococcus
Which serotype of Neisseria Meningitidis is responsible for meningitis epidemics in developing countries
Which serotypes of N. meningitidis are common in US
B, C, Y and W-135
20% of population are carriers of N. meningitidis - where is it located?
Attached to epithelial cells in nasopharynx
Epidemics of meningitis in overcrowded areas - schools, military bases, prisons are caused by which organism?
N. meningitidis
How do you diagnose meningococcal meningitis
Primarily by clinical signs - also culture CSF and blood, Gram stain of CSF, increased WBC count in CSF
What is a treatment of meningococcal meningitis
Penicillin or ampicillin, chloramphenicol - after acute infection 1 dose rifampin
As chemoprophylaxis for family members of patient with meningococcal meningitis - what drug is used and why
Rifampin - clears nasopharyngeal carriages (penicillin does not)
What is preferred vaccine for N. meningitidis for 2-10 year olds and over 55 year old
Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4 or Menomune)
What is preferred vaccine for N. meningitidis in people 11-55 year old + people at high risk (college freshmen, military recruits, etc)
Meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4 or Menactra)
Which serotype of N. meningitidis is NOT included in the vaccine and is most commonly seen in US
H. INFLUENZAE B - shape + stain
Gram negative pleomorphic coccobacilli
Which organism used to be primary cause of pediatric meningitis but now only seen in unvaccinated children
H. influenzae
How long do maternal antibodies protect infant from H. influenzae
3-4 months
Meningitis caused by H. influenzae usually follows _
Upper respiratory infection followed by fever and severe headache
What are the sequelae of meningitis caused by H. influenzae
Hearing loss
H. influenzae does NOT grow on which medium
MacKonkeys or Blood agar
What two factors does H. influenzae need for growth
X (hemin) and V (NAD) factors
H. parainfluenzae only needs one factor -
V factor
H. influenzae can only be cultured on which medium
Chocolate agar
How do you treat meningitis caused by H. influenzae
Broad spectrum cephalosporins
Serratia, Pseudomonas, Proteus are NOT common causes of neonatal meningitis but occur in _
Premature infants -respiratory equipment
Are cardinal signs of meningitis present in neonatal meningitis
Which serotype of Group B strep causes most cases of meningitis
Gram positive rods
Which organism grows on most media in cold selection (4 degrees C)
Listeria monocytogenes
C. BOTULINUM and C. TETANI - Shape + Stain
Gram positive rods, anaerobic, spore forming
Botulinum toxin causes what in infants?
Flaccid paralysis
MOA botulinum neurotoxin
Inhibits release of Ach
How would infant suffering from botulism present
Failure to thrive


Flaccid paralysis
MOA tetanus toxin
Prevents release of inhibitory NT
What do you see in 75% of patients with tetanus
Strismus - lock jaw
What is appropriate treatment of tetanus
Antimicrobial therapy first followed by tetanus immunoglobulin
What distinguishes Brucella bacteria