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77 Cards in this Set

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Diseases of Staphylococcus aureus:
**food poisoning, skin diseases, systemic diseases (TSS, bacteremia, heart, lung, and bone infections)
**diseases spread by fomites and direct contact
S. aureus virulence factors and Rx:
*Coagulase; triggers blood clotting
*Capsules, hyaluronidase, staphylokinase, betalactamases (destroy penicillins)
*Toxins: various, including TSS toxin, exfoliatin, and enterotoxins (heat stable)
*95% resistant to penicillin, but now many resistant to methicillin, and now vancomycin, leaving ?
Streptococci: G+ cocci
aerotolerant anaerobes, catalase negative, grow in chains and pairs.
Group A strep: S. pyogenes
Group B strep: S. agalactiae
Group A strep: S. pyogenes
pharyngitis, scarlet fever, pyoderma, erysipelas, TSS, necrotizing fasciitis
Sequela: rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis
Group B strep: S. agalactiae
infects newborns during birth, various illnesses.
S. pyogenes, Group A:
pharyngitis (strep throat), scarlet fever, skin diseases
S. pneumoniae:
lung infections (pneumoniae), meningitis, middle ear infections;
major virulence factor is capsule; occurs in pairs=diplococci.
S. agalactiae:
vaginal microbiota, cause newborn septicemia and meningitis
Viridians group:
alpha hemolytic; common in throat and mouth, S.mutans=tooth decay
Enterococcus:
E. faecalis and E. faecium:
normal microbiota in GI tract, antibiotic resistant, cause of endogenous infections.
Neisseria: Gram - cocci
N. meningitis and N. gonorrhoeae
**coffee bean shaped in pairs
**pyogenic
N. gonorrhoeae
cause of gonorrhea
virulence factors: capsule, fimbriae, survival in neutrophils
*males: painful discharge from urethra
*females: often asymptomatic; otherwise, urethritis, PID, arthritis.
*eye infection of newborns
*no long term immunity
N. meningitis
cause of bacterial meningitis
capsule protects cells during phagocytosis
present as normal microbiota in 40% of population
trasmitted by droplets, close contact
infection of meninges, sore throat, high fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, convulsions
serology
use of antibodies to identify particular antigenic molecules on cell surfaces
O antigen
repeating sugar group on LPS
H antigen
flagellar protein
K antigen
capsule antigen around cell
Klebsiella pneumoniae
various opportunistic infections including wound infections, pneumonia
**capsule is the major virulence factor
Proteus
changes shape and flagella between liquid and solid media; common cause of UTIs.
**produces urease
Enterobacter aerogenes
coliform; GI tract and environmental
wound infections
Salmonella
present in eggs, poultry, on animals such as reptiles.
large dose results in food poisoning; diarrhea, fever, etc.
Salmonella typhi
typhoid fever. spread through body. gall bladder as reservoir.
importance of clean water and sewage treatment.
Shigella
S.sonnei (most common)and
S. dysenteriae (most serious); cause shigellosis.
*very small infectious dose, personal hygiene importantin prevention.
*infection damages intestinal lining, cells pass directly from cell to cell; cramps, diarrhea, bloody stools.
S. dysenteriae produces shiga toxin which inhibits protein synthesis, increases damage.
Yersinia
Y. pestis is cause of plague, other species cause food-borne infections.
Plague: 3 cycles
sylvan, urban, and human
**endemic in sylvan cycle; mixing of woodland and urban rodents brings urban cycle; fleas jump from dying rats to humans.
Infection leads to large swollen lymph nodes: buboes.
Bubonic plague: high fever
Septicemic plague: with DIC, bruising (black death)
Pneumonic: coughed out and spread human to human, 100% mortality
Pasteurella multocida
small Gram - rod
common in animals, people get it by bites, scratches.
inflammation, swollen nodes near site of infection
Haemophilus
H.influenzae: mostly respiratory infections and meningitis and epiglottis in very young.

H.ducreyi: STD chancroid; visible and painful in men.
Brucella
infection from contact with livestock, fluids including dairy.
Undulant fever: fever that goes up and down; several other names including Bang's disease.
Bordetella:
B. pertussis
cause of whooping cough
infects trachea, several toxins.
disease in stages:
incubation, catarrhal, paroxysmal
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
G- aerobic rod
*most dangerous Pseudomonas
capable of causing disease anywhere in body
Burn patients and cystic fibrosis patients most vulnerable
Cause of swimmer's ear, hot tub infections
**resistant to most antibiotics and disinfectants
Francisella:
F. tularensis
cause of tularemia
also called rabbit fever, tick fever, deerfly fever.
Chills, fever, malaise, swollen nodes
Legionella:
L. pneumophila
very common in aquatic environments: ponds, cooling towers, hotwater heaters, showers.
most dangerous as opportunistic pneumonia, inhalation
"pontiac fever": mild form of disease.
Bacteroides
anaerobic gram- rod
live in diff. parts of body, especially GI tract; also in mouth, genito-urinary tract.
trauma to these areas leads to polymicrobic infections.
Member of the herpes virus family:
HSV 1 and 2, Variella zoster(VZV), Epstein Barr (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Herpes simplex 1 and 2:
HHV 1: above the waist
typically oral, cold sores, flu-like symptoms.
HHV 2: genital, STD & neonatal. Painful, contagious sores on genitals, overlaps with HHV1.
Varicella zoster
Varicella: chicken pox
Zoster: shingles
Cytomegalovirus
CMV (HHV5): infection results in enlarged cells.
Epstein-Barr virus
cause of infectious mononucleosis.
infects B-cells and salivary glands.
sore throat, swollen glands and spleen
long lasting fatigue
Hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
damage results in accumulation of bilirubin
results in yellow color=jaundice
Hepatitis B
DNA virus:"hepadnavirus"
released from live cells, so high numbers in body fluids.
blood of infected person is highly contagious
large amounts of empty capsids ties up antibodies.
Hepatitis A
small RNA virus:"picornavirus"
transmitted by fecal-oral route. incubation for 1 month, followed by fever, nausea, anorexia, jaundice.
T cells attack infected liver cells.
no chronic infections, patients recover.
Hepatitis C
RNA virus, diff. group: "flavivirus"
causes chronic infections.
transmission like HepB: blood, sex, transplants.
often mild w/few symptoms until damage
long period bet/n infection and damage
Arkansas Arboviruses:
Encephalitis
spread by mosquitoes;
Eastern Equine enceph., togavirus.
St. Louis enceph., West Nile virus, flavivirus.
Mycoplasma
unusual properties
very small, pleomorphic (cocci to filaments)
Have no cell walls, but have sterols in their membranes
M. pneumoniae
attaches to epithelial cells, kills them
Buildup of mucus, other infections.
Fever, malaise, sore throat, etc. Walking pneumonia
No cell wall, so can't treat with penicillins!
Ureaplasma urealyticum
sexually transmitted, cause of urethritis
Rickettsiae
gram negative, very small, obilgate parasites
most spread by vectors
Damage to capillaries produces spots, rashes
R. rickettsii
Rocky mountain spotted fever
spread by tick bite
R. prowazekii
epidemic typhus
vector is the human louse
R. typhi
murine/endemic typhus
vector is the flea
Ehrlichia chaffeensis
spread by lone star tick and dog tick
infects leukocytes rather than endothelial cells.
Chlamydia
cell wall and outer membrane, but no peptidoglycan.
spread directly rather than by vectors.
Two stage life cycle:
elementary body: tiny and inert. Spore-like~dormant and resistant. Infectious~form that moves between cells.
Reticulate Body: metabolically active, reproduce inside host cells.
C. trachomatis
infects cells of mucous membranes, conjunctiva. Mostly eye and STD.
Trachoma
leading cause of non-traumatic blindness. infection of conjunctiva causes scarring, turning in of eyelashes which scratch cornea.
Non-gonococcal urethritis
chlamydia infections are the most common STD, but even more are infected and asymptomatic.
Lymphogranuloma venereum
lymph nodes in genital region become enlarged (buboes), may even rupture.
blocked lymph ducts lead to genital elephantiasis.
Chlamydia pneumoniae
cause of bronchitis, sinusitis, pneumonia
Chlamydia psittaci
cause of ornithosis
Spirochetes
have internal flagella in bundles called axial filaments; corkscrew through liquid.
Treponema pallidum
cause of syphilis,STD
hard painless genital ulcer; long incubation; ulcer disappears, spirochete spreads, causes systemic disease (rash, fever); either goes away, comes back, or tertiary syphilis in which gummas form, serious stage.
Borrelia burgdorferi
cause of Lyme disease
spread by deer tick
slow developing, fever, bulls-eye rash; arthritis and heart or CNS involvement
Borrelia recurrentis
cause of relapsing fever
spread by lice or ticks
Leptospira interrogans
cause of leptospirosis
from contact with animal fluids, esp. urine.
infects liver and kidneys
Vibrio cholera
gram- curved rod
toxin-mediated severe diarrhea
Campylobacter jejuni
number one cause of bacterial gastroenteritis; zoonotic.
Food-borne disease, most retail chickens are contaminated.
Helicobacter pylori
cause of ulcers and gastritis
unusual b/c can live in stomach
produces urease enzyme
correlated w/stomach cancer
Aspergillus
aspergillosis
very common in soil, plant materials.
Candida
candidiasis
cause of vaginal infections, diaper rash, thrush.
capable of infecting any part of the body
Cryptococcus neoformans
inhalation of spores
predilection for CNS
Pneumocystitis carinii
fungus
most cases associated w/AIDS
serious lung infections: PCP
Balantidium coli
present in hog intestines
source: contaminated water
disease: attack of GI tract
Entamoeba histolytica
fecal-oral transmission
asymptomatic to severe diarrhea
Acanthameoba and Naegleria
natural water or through eye (Acanthamoeba)
brain infections; rare, fatal (Naegleria)
Trypanosoma
cause of african sleeping sickness, spread by tsetse fly. Infection of CNS, causes coma.
cause of Chagas disease, spread by reduviid bug: eventually damages heart tissue.
Leishmania
causes leishmaniasis, spread by sandfly
Toxoplasma
kills fetus
part of life cycle involves cats, so pregnant women must stay away from litter box
Cryptosporidium
primarily livestock and poultry, acquired fecal-oral through food or contaminated water.
diarrhea, but systemic spread as well.