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31 Cards in this Set

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BLANK began as a branch of pathology

In 1898, BLANK and BLANK demonstrated that foot and mouth disease (disease in cattle) was transferable from one animal to the next with material...

This lead to the term BLANK BLANK.
Virology

Loeffler and Frosch

that was passed through a filter that retained the smallest microbe

“ultrafilterable viruses”
--Virology timeline--

1899: BLANK was a plant pathologist recognized that TMV (tobacco) was not caused by a bacterium but by a...

1917: d Herelle recognized the BLANK which infects bacteria.

1940s: BLANK viruses discovered

1962: BLANK viruses

1972: BLANK viruses.
Beijerinck; contagious living fluid

bacteriophage

insect

fungal

protozoan
All viruses have the same BLANK BLANK, BLANK BLANK (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat, and sometimes an BLANK BLANK.
general structure; genetic material; outer membrane
Most viruses are BLANK nm and smaller than bacteria.

They must be viewed with a BLANK microscope.

Thus most viral BLANK are small and few BLANK encoded.
200nm

Electron

genomes; genes
--Viral composition--

Nucleic acid surrounded by a BLANK BLANK.

Nucleic acid size ranges few thousand bases in a BLANK to several hundred thousand bases in BLANK.

Most viruses have how many genes?

Most complex viral genomes encode for BLANK to BLANK proteins.

BLANK, the protective coat surrounding the nucleic acid, made up of BLANK BLANK.

What are the nucleic acid and the capsid together called?
protein coat

Picornavirus; Poxvirus

5-200 genes

200 to 300

Capsid; protein subunits

Nucleocapsid
--Viral composition--

Outer envelope of a virus is sometimes composed of BLANK, complexes of BLANK and BLANK.

Many of these BLANK take on the shape of BLANK on the outer envelope.

Influenza viruses have spikes that possess either BLANK or BLANK activity.

Hemagglutination activity causes...

Neuraminidase activity aids in the penetration of the virus...
glycoproteins; proteins and carbohydrates

glycoproteins; spikes

hemagglutinin or neuraminidase

RBC’s to cluster.

through the mucus in the respiratory tract.
To find bacteriophages, you can perform a plaque assay, a serial dilution, then a titer.

What about viruses, like influenza?
You can look for change in cells or look for Hemagglutination activity, then titer using RBC's
What are the 3 viral shapes or forms?

Describe each and provide an example
polyhedral, helical, binal

Polyhedral form is a icosahedron with 20 faces, 30 edges, and 12 vertices. Ex: Adenovirus, Papovavirus, and Herpesvirus.

Helical forms
Ex: Tobacco mosiac virus (TMV), rabies virus, and the bacteriophage M13.

Binal forms
Ex: Poxvirus and T even phages.
--Viral classification--

Early attempts were based on the BLANK or BLANK system infected. Problem was that viruses infected many different BLANK and BLANK systems.

Another classification method was based on infecting animal, plants or bacteria and...

Today, viral classification is based on what four areas?
Host or organ; hosts and organ

type of disease symptoms produced

Based on type of nucleic acid (RNA or DNA), symmetry of the nucleocapsid (ex: isohedral), + or – an envelope, and capsid size.
--Bacteriophages--

Linear dsDNA:
BLANK (T even phages), BLANK (T odd phages), and BLANK (lambda).

Circular ssDNA:
BLANK (M13), and BLANK (ΦX174; first genome sequenced)

RNA bacteriophages (Φ6) have...
Myoviridae, Pedoviridae, Styloviridae

Inoviridae, Microviridae

linear dsRNA
Plant viruses are transmitted by BLANK or from BLANK to BLANK.

Plant viruses appear to lack specific penetration mechanisms to invade plants so they rely on what 4 things to invade plants?
Insects; plants to plants

physical cell damage, insect injury, mechanical abuse, and weather injury
What is a linear ssRNA plant virus within the core of a protein coat?

How many different genera of plants does it infect?

It is also a BLANK virus which means it can handle 120C for 30 minutes.

Many plant viruses appear to be BLANK viruses.
Tobamovirus or TMV (tobacco mosaic virus)

150

Thermostable

RNA
What are the 2 types of animal viruses?

Where do animal DNA viruses replicate in their hosts?
DNA and RNA animal viruses

Parvovirus, Adenovirus, and Herpesvirus are replicated in the nucleus, where the virus is also assembled.

In Poxvirus (smallpox virus) and other viruses, the entire multiplication cycle occurs in the cytoplasm.
What does the animal DNA virus Adenovirus cause?
causes respiratory and GI disturbances
In Family Parvoviridae, what is one of the smallest viruses of vertebrates called?

They have linear BLANK, they are BLANK, contain no lipids or BLANK, and have a BLANK structure.

This virus is associated with mice and rats. What is an infection they cause?

They also cause a disease in newborns known as...
Parvovirus

ssDNA; non-enveloped; glycoprotein; polyhedral

Minute virus of mice (MVM).

a hemolytic anemia
Polyomovirus and Papillomavirus are two genera which comprise what family?

They are BLANK, BLANK dsDNA, BLANK, worldwide distribution, and transmitted via contact with infected secretions.

Viruses like Papillomavirus remain BLANK in tissue or BLANK into the genome. They enter through BLANK.
Family Papovaviridae

icosahedral; circular; non enveloped

dormant or integrate; skin
BLANK is the important member of the Polyomovirus. This is an BLANK virus in rodents, discovered in Monkey Kidney cells.

BLANK is the virus of common human warts, genital warts and over 60 types of HPV.

New vaccine by Merck called BLANK based on types 6, 11, 16, and 18.

HPV types BLANK and BLANK account for BLANK% of all cervical cancers (50k die from it a year).

Vaccination of females between 11-19; 1 in 4 teenage females have an STD; most common STD.
Simian virus 40 (SV40); oncogenic

Papillomavirus

“Gardasil”

16 and 18; 58%
Salk vaccine was BLANK BLANK viruses but they need BLANK.

Salk vaccine was first for treating BLANK but it contained contained the virus for BLANK.

Sabin vaccine was BLANK BLANK viruses to treat polio. It is better for BLANK BLANK.
formalin inactivated; boosters

polio; SV40

live attenuated; long term
Family BLANK is an animal DNA virus that has BLANK dsDNA, are BLANK, and have an BLANK capsid. It is naturally in humans and transmitted by infected secretions BLANK or BLANK.

The following are members of this family. Describe each.
1. Herpes simplex type 1 BLANK and 2 BLANK (genus Herpesvirus)
2. Human cytomegalovirus:
3. Epstein-Barr virus
4. Varicella-zoster virus
5. Human herpesvirus-6,-7,-8 (no details)
Herpesviridae; linear; enveloped, icosahedral

Oral or genital

1. Oral or genital
2. If you are immunosupressed then treated with a cocktail of drugs
3. mononucleosis; tumor forming
4. Known as chickenpox and treated with a vaccine Zostavax
5. Human herpesvirus-6,-7,-8 (no details)
Shared antigens between BLANK BLANK virus 1 and 2 make it difficult to differentiate.

Type 1 infections are most common in the upper body as BLANK BLANK.

Type 2 are usually associated with BLANK infections.

It is passed person to person by infected BLANK or BLANK.

Some are BLANK like HSV1 and HSV 2 mean they hang around in the body.
Herpes simplex virus

cold sores

genital

lesions or secretions

"latent"
Neonatal herpes is a BLANK infection in pregnant female

It occurs in BLANK deliveries and the mortality rate is BLANK to BLANK due to meningitis.

It is treated and controlled by BLANK, a drug like that looks like a BLANK and interferes with BLANK replication.
HSV2

1:2,000; 50 to 60%

acyclovir; purine; viral
What is a family Herpesviridae virus that causes congenital infections in the U.S. that spread from mother to fetus?

It is also a major opportunistic disease in BLANK BLANK recipients and BLANK individuals.

Virus is usually associated with BLANK BLANK cells or the transplanted BLANK.

The virus is spread by contact with BLANK BLANK and may produce persistent life long BLANK.
Cytomegalovirus

organ transplant; immunosuppressed

white blood; organ

infectious fluids; infections
What is a virus part of family Herpesviridae that causes infectious mononucleosis?

What are its symptoms?

It was discovered in BLANK.
Epstein-Barr Virus aka EBV

Typically fever, malaise, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy.

Africa
What is a family Herpesviridae virus that causes chickenpox?

This virus may remain BLANK in the BLANK BLANK of the spinal cord for many years before reactivating to become BLANK.

What vaccine is used to treat it?
Varicella-Zoster Virus aka VZV

latent; sensory ganglia; shingles

Zostavax
BLANK virus produces a skin rash and is associated with patients with BLANK BLANK BLANK.

BLANK virus is associated with BLANK BLANK, a lymphoid hyperplasia that may progress to a lymphoma.

BLANK virus was associated with patients presenting BLANK disorders and grows in human lymphocytes
Herpesvirus-7; “chronic fatigue syndrome”

Herpesvirus-8; “Kaposi’s sarcoma”

Herpesvirus-6; lymphoproliferative
Members of family BLANK are BLANK small viruses that consist of BLANK ssRNA.

These are classic enteroviruses like BLANK and BLANK.

The BLANK can also cause BLANK, involving the cardiac muscle.

BLANK is paralytic disease in young children. Infection is sometimes from BLANK or BLANK of GI tract or of a target organ meninges.
Picornaviridae; non enveloped; linear

polioviruses 1-3 and coxsackieviruses A-B

coxsackievirus; myocarditis

Poliovirus; ingestion or infection
--Polio stuff--

Salk vaccine works because BLANK BLANK block the spread to BLANK.

(DONT MEMORIZE, just review)
1. 1894 polio outbreak, FDR got crippled; polio weakens muscles and they can bend; classic enteroviruses
2. By end of WWII, 20,000 cases
3. By 1952, salk vaccine testing begins (58k cases); formalin killed virus; low risk but immunity doesn't last
4. By 1961, sabin vaccine; live attenuated virus; risk is greater but immunity is for a lifetime
5. By 1999, worldwide cases are less than 7,000
6. Oral sugar cube; in 1996 now you get 2 doses of inactivated polio vaccine then followed by 2 doses of oral vaccine.
7. Last outbreak was in 1979 from Amish
serum antibodies; meninges
What family includes the influenza A, B, and C viruses?

What are the effects of the flu?

Types A and B account for BLANK BLANK diseases while Type C produces BLANK or BLANK.
Family Orthomyxoviridae

Respiratory infections along with abrupt headache, fever, chills and a dry cough

epidemic respiratory; bronchitis or pneumonia
Major flu epidemics are associated with a shift in the BLANK.

What is used to treat influenza?

Examples are H2 Asian flu in 1957, H3 Hong Kong flu in 1968, and Avian influenza H5.

This was the first virus shown to contain BLANK as the genetic material.

Flu shot contains...

Antigenic BLANK and antigenic BLANK (when surface antigen changes) leads to different varieties of H1N1
hemagglutinin

Tamiflu and vaccines

ssRNA

one A(H3N2), one A (H1N1), and one B

Drift and shift
Family BLANK consists of BLANK virus, BLANK ssRNA, large in size, BLANK shaped and causes BLANK.

What is an example genus?

Natural habitat is wild and domestic animals like...

Distribution worldwide and is transmitted by BLANK.
Rhabdoviridae; enveloped; linear; bullet; rabies

Lyssavirus

bats and racoons

bites
DONT MEMORIZE, just review.

Ebola: BLANK% mortality

Family Hepadnaviridae: species Hepatitis A through E

Hepatitis A is picornaviridae; genus is hepatovirus; given from shellfish

Hepatitis B,C is from blood and sharing needles and sexually; C is the worst because of liver cancer
--Two drugs: beta infereon and ribavirin (aukim?)

Hepatitis E is an enteric virus

Hepatitis D is a virus
90%