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58 Cards in this Set

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Zach Jansen
1st microscope
Robert Hooke
"Man who knew everything". Improved microscope. Published Micrographia. Denounced by king. Used cork and fleas during experiments. Empty boxes=cells
Antwon van Leeuwenhoek
"Animalcules" Teeth=gutter water.
John Needham
Spontaneous gen. Straw and soil broth. Broth + Sealing + Days= Life
Lazzaro Spallanzani
Disproved Needham's theory b/c of forced air. Heated broth.
Rudolph Virchow
Cells begat cells. Set stage for life from life.
Louis Pasteur
Confirmed Spallazani. Aeseptic technique.
John Tyndall
Heat kills microbes. Tyndalization:Repeated heating.
Joe Lister
Handwashing, sterilization in O.R area. Ignaz Semmelweis
Robert Koch
Koch's postulates: same pathogen>isolate pathogen>meet healthy host>isolate new host>causitive agent?
Ed Jenner
Vaccination. Basis of virulence theory. Small Pox/Cow Pox
Paul Ehrlich
Cure for syphillis. Salvarsan
Alexander Flemming
Antimicrobial agents. Noticed effects of penicilin on mold. "scale up"
Francisco Redi
Spontaneous generation. Rotting meat experiment.
sealed=no maggots
unsealed=maggots
abiogenesis
living from non-living
spontaneous generation
abiogenesis synonym
biogenesis
living from living
resolution
the ability of the lenses to distinguish 2 points
refractive index
light bending ability of a medium.
instruments of microscopy
brightfield illumination, darkfield illumination, phase contrast, fluorescence microscopy,electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy
brightfield illumination
dark objects are visible against bright background
darkfield illumination
light objects are visible against a dark background
phase contrast
accentuates diffracted light from a specimen
fluorescence microscopy
uv light;cells may be stained w/ fluorescent dyes
electron microscopy
electrons replace light. shorter wavelegnths give greater resolution
*important w/ viruses
transmission electron microscopy
details of cell insides
scanning electron microscopy
3D picture inside cell
types of stains
simple, differential and special
simple stains
uses a single, basic dye
differential stains
colors different types of cells distinctively. distinguishes bacterial types
.i.e., gram & acid fast stains
special stains
specifies cell structures

Endospores & Flagella
prokaryotic cells
non-human, "pre-nucleus"
eukaryotic cells
human. have histones, paired chromosomes, organelles,mitotic spindle,polysaccharide
"true nucleus"
cell shapes
cocci,spirochete, bacilli, vibrio,
cocci
round
spirochete
corkscrews
vibrios
commas
unusual cell shapes
stars, squares
pleomorphic
varying shapes
monomorphic
having only one form
cell arrangements
diplo, staph, strepto, tetrad
diplo
pairs
staph
clusters
strepto
chains
two types of genes
inducable and repressable
repressable genes
are always off until need to be turned on
ex: turkey;triptifan digestion
inducable genes
are alway on until need to be turned off
ex: eating ice cream ;lactose digestion
cilia
is for attachment
plasma membrane
lipid bi-layer, gives structure ad allows entrance to cell
Svedberg units
unit "S" means Svedberg units, a measure of the rate of sedimentation of a particle in a centrifuge
Okazaki fragment
a relatively short fragment of DNA
Poly(A) tails
A string of adenine nucleotides added to the 3' end of eukaryotic mRNA after transcription.
mRNA
one gene, one msg
monosystronic
one msg
polysystronic
many msgs
introns
dead space
exons
edited pieces in final RNA
codon
A sequence of three nucleotides on a strand of m-RNA that codes for an amino acid