Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/58

Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Strept Throat
(Strept pharyngitis)

Organism & Transmission
Streptococcus pyogenes
Group A
Trans: Respiratory areosols and contaminated food
Strept Throat
(Strept pharyngitis)

Symptoms & Characteristics
Treatment
Sort Throat, if left untreated-Scarlet Fever, inner ear infection, acute glomerulonephritis
Treatment: Penicillin
Scarlet Fever
When S. pyogenes produces an erythrogenic (reddening) toxin, it results in scarlet fever. It has been lysed by a bacteriophage. Causes pink.red skin rash and high fever. Strawberry-like tongue, that peels like scalded skin syndrome.
Diphtheria


Organism & Transmission
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Trans: Respiratory areosols and fomites
Diphtheria


Symptoms
Fever, Aches, Pains, general malaise, swelling of the neck
Produces an exotoxin capable of killing a 200lb man with .01mg by causing kidney and heart failure, and partial paralysis.
Diphtheria


Characteristics
Gram + Rod
Doesn't produce spores
Must distinguish between Strept
Diphtheria has both virulent and non-virulent strains.
Sinusitis

Organism & Transmission
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae

spread from infected nasal mucosa, (colds, allergies etc.)
Sinusitis

Symptoms
Mucus build-up
Membranes swell
Pressure builds
can Be chronic
Sinusitis


Characteristics
Capsules
Alpha-hemolytic

Gram(-) - haemophilus influenza
Sinusitis


Treatment
Penicillin in severe cases

analgesics, nasal decongestants, steam inhalation
Otitis Media
(Earache)

organisms
Streptococcus pneumoniae G(+)
Haemophilus influenza G(-)
Streptococcus pyogenes G(+)
Staphylococcus aureus G(+)
Moraxella catarhalis G(-)-Coccobacillius (Strict aerobe)
Otitis Media
(Earache)

transmission
infected nasal and throat mucosa through eustachian tube.
contaminates water in pools, trauma, enlarged adenoids, injury to eardrum
Otitis Media
(Earache)

Symptoms
Inflammation of inner ear
Pain
Pressure
Partial loss or hearing
Can rupture ear drum.
Pneumococcal Pneumonia
Typical Pneumonia

Organism & Transmission
Streptococcus Pneumonia

Trans: Respiratory areosols
Pneumococcal Pneumonia
Typical Pneumonia

Symptoms
Fever, Labored Breathing, Chest Pain. bloody sputum, can get into pleural cavity, can cause menengitis.
Pneumococcal Pneumonia
Typical Pneumonia

Characteristics
90 serotypes
Culture -Blood, micro aerophilic conditions, alpha hemolysis.
Disks of Optichin or bile solubility tests.
Haemophilus influenzae
Pneumonia

Organism & Transmission
Haemophilus influenzae

Trans: Respiratory areosols
Haemophilus influenzae
Pneumonia

Symptoms
Fever, Labored Breathing, Chest Pain. bloody sputum, can get into pleural cavity, can cause menengitis.

Alcoholics, poor nutrition, cancer, and diabetes make a person more susceptible.
Haemophilus influenzae
Pneumonia

Characteristics
Gram (-) coccobacillus
sputum samples w/ gram stain
differentiates from streptococcal pneumonia
Mycoplasmal Pneumonia
(primary atypical pneumonia)
(walking pneumonia)
20% of all types
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae

Trans: Respiratory aerosols
Mycoplasmal Pneumonia

Symptoms
3+ weeks of milder symptoms
Fever, headache, and cough
Mycoplasmal Pneumonia

Characteristics
No Cell Wall
Medium must contain horse serum and yeast extract
Colonies look like fried eggs
PCR Test
Whooping Cough
(Pertussis)

Organism and transmission
Boretella

Trans: Respiratory aerosols
Whooping Cough
(Pertussis)

Symptoms
Episodes of violent coughing
convalescence stage could last months
Most often occurs in children
Extreme mucus build-up in throat causes the coughing, that can sometimes braek ribs.
Whooping Cough
(Pertussis)

Characteristics
Gram (-) coccobacillus
obligate aerobic
virulent strains produce capsules
produces two toxins, tracheal cytotoxin, and pertussis toxin
Agar-Bordet Genqou
PCR test and wire in throat test.
Whooping Cough
(Pertussis)

Treatment
DTaP Vaccine
Erythromycin
Must be treated prior to second stage, or hard to treat.
Tuberculosis (TB)


Organism & Transmission
Mycobacterium tuberculosis

respiratory aerosols
High concentration % in-
Asians, Southern states and Alaska
D.C> and NYC - highest %
Tuberculosis (TB)


Symptoms
Vague chest symptoms, fever, anorexia, pleurisy, night sweats, pulmonary hemorrhaging.
Bacteria form the tubercle by infesting the macrophages, they clump, then they are deteriorated by the bacteria from the inside of the clump out. They finally break out into the bronchi and cause severe complications.
Tuberculosis (TB)


Characteristics
Slender rods, obligate aerobes
slow growing, acid fast, viable for weeks in dried sputum.
TB Test, Mantoux test, floruescent Abs test, ELSPOT test.
3-6 weeks for culture
Must be reported
Bronchitis
(Infection of Bronchi)

Organism & Transmission
Heamophilus influenza
Respiratory aerosols
Bronchitis
(Infection of Bronchi)

Symptoms and characteristics
Thick mucus, productive cough, can become chronic, can develop into pneumonia.

Swab sputum samples
X&B growth on disks of blood agar and chocolate agar.
Coryza
(Common Cold)

Organism & Transmission
Rhinoviruses - 50%
Corona Viruses - 15-20%
More than 200 are known
only takes 1 virus to cause a cold
Respiratory aerosols, fomites, hands
Coryza
(Common Cold)

Symptoms & Characteristics
Sneezing, excessive nasal secretions, coughing, congestion.
7-10 days to run course.
Visual determination
Q Fever
Q-in australia means Query (don't know)
Organism & Transmission
Coxiella Burnetti (only 1 to infect.
Animal to Human,(aerosols from infected animals, infected milk, or foor products)
Animal to Human (bite of infected ticks
Mainly found in CA, AZ, WA, OR
Q Fever

Symptoms
Flu-like pneumonia
60% are asymptomatic
Fever, Headaches, Muscle aches, coughing, malaise for months
5-10 yrs after initial infection - poss endocartitis
Q Fever

Characteristics & Treatment
Similar to endospores
OIP- Can't grow on medium
Must culture in chick embryo
G(-) Rod
Psittacosis
(Ornithosis)

Organism & Transmission
Chlamydophila psittaci

Aerosol discharge from birds
inhalation of dried bird fecal matter
Lots of different types of birds.
Psittacosis
(Ornithosis)

Symptoms
Is a type of pneumonia
Fever, headache, chills
Sometimes delerium and disorientation
Under stress makes you more susceptible to acquire
Legionnaires' Disease
(Legionellosis)

Organism & Transmission
Legionella pneumophila

aerosols from contaminated water. (A/C of hotels, pools, humidifiers etc.)
Most susceptible to acquire: Male, over 50 that smoke and jave underlying health complications such as COPD
Legionnaires' Disease
(Legionellosis)

Symptoms
Fever about 105 degrees
cough
general pneumonia-like symptoms
Legionnaires' Disease
(Legionellosis)

Characteristics
G(-) Rods
Aerobic
Resistant to chlorine and phagocytes

Grown on charcoal ans yeast extract medium
Part of Rikettsia group.
Influenza


Organism & Transmission
Influenza virus (Myxovirus)
Types A (Major Pandemics)
Type B (Mild local)
Type C (Rare)
Respiratory aerosols, highly contagious.
Many different animals spread.
1918 20 Mil people die from Type A
Influenza


Symptoms
Chills, Fever, Muscle Aches, cold-like symptoms.
Secondary bacterial infections often take over.
NO ASPIRIN- Reye's syndrome possible.
Influenza


Characteristics
Mutate at a high rate
Many different strains
Top 3 strains become flu vaccine
H & N spikes identify the strains.
H - Hemagluttinin
N - Neuraminidase
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
(found in 4 corners area)

Organism & Transmission
Hantavirus (sin hombre) means no name
Family Bunyaviridae

aerosol transmission of rodent feces (Deer mouse)
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
(found in 4 corners area)

Symptoms
Fever, Cough, severe pneumonia, Edema in Lungs(Drown), Heart failure
Mortality was 40-50%, no lower because of quick supportive care like High flow O2.
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
(found in 4 corners area)

Characteristics
RNA Virus
ELISA Test
Western Blot
Seriological test
Coccidiodomycosis
(San Joaquin Valley Fever)-Epidemic area
Organism & Transmission
Coccidioides immitis
(Ascomycetes)
Inhalation of airborn spores
No direct contact
Possibly when driving
Coccidiodomycosis
(San Joaquin Valley Fever)

Symptoms
Often subclinical symptoms
Possible, chest pain, coughing, fever, weight loss
Less than 1% are serious
Coccidiodomycosis
(San Joaquin Valley Fever)

Characteristics
Spherules
Hyphae lay dormant in soil, then blows in wind.
Dimorphic (Yeast or mold)
Mimics TB, must RO TB by looking for spherules.
Skin test similar to TB Test
Histoplasmosis
(Mississippi Valley Fever)

Organism and Transmission
Histoplasma capsulatium
(Ascomycetes)
Inhalation of airborne spores, bird or bat droppings.
Histoplasmosis
(Mississippi Valley Fever)

Symptoms
Will mimic TB as well
Very vague subclinical symptoms: Fever and cough.
Small number of cases can become bad and spread through blood and lymph.
Histoplasmosis
(Mississippi Valley Fever)

Characteristics
Dimorphic Fungus
Can grow inside macrophages
Pt Hx is important (camping, bat hunting, etc.)
DNA Probes
Blastomycosis


Organism and Transmission
Blaastomyces dermatitdis
(Ascomycetes)

Inhalation of airborne spores.
Farmers with open skin in wind
Blastomycosis


Symptoms & characteristics
Abcess formation and tissue destruction
forms cutaneous infection
Dimorphic fungus
Mississippi River Valley Area
Biopsy
Pneumocystis pneumonia


Organism and Transmission
Pneumocystis jiroveci
(ascomycetes)

respiratory secretions, inhaling organism from environment.
Pneumocystis pneumonia


Transmission and carriers
Rare before HIV and AIDS
Healthy person usually not infected, only immunosuppressed individual.
Pneumocystis pneumonia


Symptoms and characterisics
Fever, cyanosis, alveoli filled with frothy material
Related to yeasts
Thick walled cysts found in Sputum.