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97 Cards in this Set

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block peptidoglycan synthesis (3)
vancomycin
Bacitracin
cycloserine
chloramphenicol blocks protein synthesis at
50S ribosome
lincomycin blocks protein synthesis at
50S ribosome
linezolid blocks protein synthesis at
50S ribosome
streptogramins blocks protein synthesis at

examples (2)
50S ribosome

quinuprisitn
dalfopristin
bactericidal antibiotics (6)
penicillins
cephalosporins
aminoglycosides
vancomycin
fluoroquinolones
metronidazole
penicillin used to treat (4)
gram-positive cocci (Strep.)
gram-positive bacilli (Bacillus)
gram-negative cocci (Neisseria)
spirochetes (Treponema)
penicillinase-resistant penicllins (3)
methicillin
nafcillin
dicloxacillin
penicillinase-resistant penicillins used to treat
S. aureus
methicillin toxicity
interstitial nephritis
aminopenicillins (2)
ampicillin
amoxicillin
aminopenicillins used to treat (2)
gram-negative bacilli
enterococci
aminopenicillin toxicity
pseudomembranous colitis
Pseudomonas aeurginosa treated with (3)
ticarcillin
piperacillin
carbenicillin
1st generation cephalosporins (2)
cefazolin
cephalexin
1st generation cephalosporins usesd to treat (3)
Proteus
E.coli
Klebsiella

(PEcK)
2nd generation cephalosporins (3)
cefoxitin
cefaclor
cefuroxime
2nd generation cephalosporins used to treat (7)
Haeumophilus
Enterobacter
Neisseria
Proteus
E.coli
Klebsiella
Serratia

(HEN PEcKS)
3rd generation cephalosporins (3)
ceftriaxone
cefotaxime
ceftazidime
3rd generation cephalosporins used to treat

examples

special property
serious gram-negative infections resistant to other beta-lactam antibiotics

N. gonorroheae
Pseudomonas

penetrate BBB - used to treat meningitis
toxicity of cephalosporins
disulfiram-like reaction when combined with ethanol
antibiotic used for patients who are penicillin-allergic and/or have renal failure
aztreonam
drug of choice for Enterobacter (2)
Imipenem/cilastatin

meropenem
bactericidal or bacteriostatic:

aminoglycosides
bactericidal
bactericidal or bacteriostatic:

tetracyclines
bacteriostatic
bactericidal or bacteriostatic:

50S ribosome inhibitors
bacteriostatic
inhibits peptidyl transferase
chloramphenicol
inhibits translocase (2)
lincomycin

erythromycin
inhibit formation of initiation complex
aminoglycosides
aminoglycoside given prophylactically for bowel surgery
neomycin
tetracycline which is an ADH antagonist
demeclocycline

(used to treat SIADH)
prevent attachment of aa-tRNA
tetracyclines
tetracycline that can be used in patients with renal failure
doxycycline (eliminated in the feces)
tetracyclines cannot be taken with (3)
milk
antacids
Fe-containing preparations

(divalent cations inhibit absorption of tetracyclines in the gut)
discolor teeth and inhibit bone growth in children
tetracyclines
block translocation
macrolides
toxicities of macrolides (2)
increase serum concentration of theophylline

increase serum concentration of warfarin
inhibits 50S peptidyltransferase
chloramphenicol
causes dose-dependent aplastic anemia
chloramphenicol
causes gray baby syndrome

because
chloramphenicol

babies lakes UDP-glucuronyl transferase
blocks peptide bond formation at 50S ribosome
clindamycin
clindamycin is used to treat
anaerobic infections above the diaphragm
toxicities of sulfonimides (2)
kernicterus in infants

displace other drugs from albumin
toxicities of trimethoprim (3)
megaloblastic anemia
leukopenia
granulocytopenia

(TMP Treats Marrow Poorly)
naldixic acid is a
fluroquinolone
toxicities of fluroquinolones
- children
- kids
- adults
damages cartilage

lep cramps and myalgias

tendonitis and tendon rupture
toxicities of metronidzole (2)
disulfiram-like reaction when combined with ethanol

metallic taste
cause ATN
polymixins
anti-TB drugs are
hepatotoxic
MOA of INH
causes a decrease in synthesis of mycolic acid
toxicities of INH (2)
neurotoxicty (depletes pyridoxine - vit. B6)

SLE-like syndrome
MOA of rifampin
inhibits DNA-dependnet RNA polymerase (DDRP)
rifampin:

inhibits or induces cytochrome P450
induces
modification via acetylation inactivates (2)
aminoglycosides
chloramphenicol
resistance to macrolides due to
Methylation of rRNA near binding site
resistance to tetracyclines is due to
decreased uptake or increased efflux
drug of choice for meningococcal infection prophylaxis
rifampin
drug of choice for gonorrhea prophylaxis
cefriaxone
drug of choice for syphilis prophylaxis
(Benzathine) penicillin G
topical used for diaper rash
nystatin
crytococcal meningitis in AIDS patients treated with
fluconazole (crosses BBB)
toxicities of azoles, e.g., fluconazole (2)
gynecomastia (inhibit hormone synthesis)

inhibition of CYP450
MOA of caspofungin
inhibits funal cell wall synthesis
caspofungin used to treat
invasive aspergillosis
MOA of terbinafine
inhibits squalene epoxidase so that lanosterol is not formed
terbinafine is used to treat

especially
dermatophytes

onychomycosis
MOA of griseofulvin
inhibits microtubule function
griseofulvin deposits in
keratin-containing tissues, e.g., nails
griseofulvin is used to treat
Tinea (ringworm)
toxicities of griseofulvin (2)
carcinogenic

induces CYP450
toxicity of amantadine
cerebellar problems (ataxia, dizziness, slurred speech)
MOA of ribavirin
inhibits synthesis of guanine nucleotides by inhibiting IMP dehydrogenase
ribavirin is used to treat (2)
chronic hepatitis C
RSV
toxicities of gangiclovir (3)
leukopenia
neutropenia
thrombocytopenia
MOA of foscarnet
inhibits viral DNA polymerase
foscarnet does not require
activation by a viral kinase

(acyclovir and gangiclovir require activation by a viral kinase)
protease inhibitors cause
hyperglycemia
zidovudine (AZT) toxicity
megaloblastic anemia
nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used during pregnancy to reduce risk of fetal transmission of HIV
zidovudine (AZT)
IFN-α used to treat (3)
chronic hepatitis B
chronic hepatitis C
Kaposi's sarcoma
IFN-β used to treat
MS
IFN-γ used to treat
NADPH oxidase deficiency
IFN toxicity
neutropenia
onchocerciasis treated with
ivermectin

(rIVER blindness is treated with IVERmectin)
nematode (roundworm) infections are treated with
mebendazole
pyrantel pamoate used to treat (3)
Ancyclostoma (hookworm)
Ascaris (giant roundworm)
Enterobius (pinworm)
praziquantel is used to treat (2)
trematode (fluke) infections
cysticercosis
cestode (tapeworm) infections are treated with
niclosamide
pentavalent antimony is used to treat
Leishmaniasis
nifurtimox is used to treat
Chaga's disease
African typanosomiasis is treated with
Suramin
kernicterus
sulfonamides
ototoxity
aminoglycosides
cartilage damage
fluoroquinolones
mutagenesis
metronidazole
discolored teeth and inhibition of bone growth
tetracyclines
teratogenic (2)
griseofulvin
ribavirin