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98 Cards in this Set

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protozoa:

amebic dysentery

clinical feature
Entamoeba histolytica

bloody diarrhea
liver abscesses --> RUQ pain caused by
Entamoeba histolytica
Entamoeba histolytica transmitted by
cysts in water
Entamoeba histolytica diagnosed by (2)
trophozoites in stool (trophozoites with ingested RBC's)
cysts in stool
Entamoeba histolytica treated with
metronidazole
MOA of metronidazole
ROS --> disruption of DNA synthesis
protozoa:

bloating
flatulence
foul-smelling diarrhea
Giardia lamblia
Giardia lamblia transmitted by
cysts in water (often seen in campers/hikers who drink spring water)
Giardia lamblia diagnosed by (2)
trophozoites in stool
cysts in stool
Giardia lamblia treated with
metronidazole
protozoa:

severe diarrhea in AIDS patients
mild diarrhea in immunocompetent patients
Crypotosporidium
Crypotosporidium transmitted by
cysts in water
Crypotosporidium diagnosed by
cysts on acid-fast stain
Crypotosporidium treated with
nothing (no treatment available - that's why it's so dangerous to AIDS patients --> full recovery may not occur)
protozoa:

brain abscess in HIV patients (ring-enhancing lesions)
birth defects in children of affected mothers
Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii transmitted by (2)
cysts in meat
cysts in cat feces
Toxoplasma gondii diagnosed by (2)
serology
biopsy
Toxoplasma gondii treated with
sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine
protozoa:

cyclic fever
anemia
splenomegaly
Plasmodium
most severe form of Plasmodium

may invade the
Plasmodium falciparum

brain
Plasmodium transmitted by
Anopheles mosquito
Plasmodium diagnosed by
blood smear

(see signet rings within RBC's)
Plasmodium treated with
chloroquine
relapse with P. vivax and P. ovale prevented with
primaquine
Trichomonas vaginalis diagnosed by
motile trophozoites on wet mount
Trichomonas vaginalis treated with
metronidazole
protozoa:

African sleeping sickness (2)
Trypanosoma gambiense
Trypanosoma rhodesiense
Trypanosoma gambiense and Trypanosoma rhodesiense transmitted by
Tsetse fly
Trypanosoma gambiense and
Trypanosoma rhodesiense trated with
- blood-borne disease
- CNS penetration
suramin

melarsoprol
T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense diagnosed by
blood smear
protozoa:

dilated cardiomyopathy
megacolon
megaesophagus
Trypanosoma cruzi
Trypanosoma cruzi transmitted by
Reduviid bug (kissing bug)
Trypanosoma cruzi diagnosed by
blood smear
Typanosoma cruzi treated with
nifurtimox
protozoa:

kala-azar
Leishmania donovani

(visceral leishmaniasis)
Leishmania donovani transmitted by
sandfly
Leishmania donovani diagnosed by
amastigotes within macrophages = Donovani bodies
Leishmania donovani treated with
sodium stibogluconate
protozoa:

fever
anemia
Babesia microti
Babesia microti transmitted by
Ixodes tick

(same as Borrelia burgdorferi)
Babesia microti diagnosed by
blood smear

(RBC's demonstrate maltese cross pattern and contain no pigment)
Babesia microti treated with (2)
quinine

clindamycin
protozoa:

rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis
Naegleria fowleri
Naegleria fowleri transmitted by

enter via
swimming/diving in freshwater lakes

cribiform plate
Naegleria fowleri diagnosed by
amebas in CSF
Naegleria fowleri treated with
nothing
cestode (tapeworm):

cysticercosis (mass lesions in the brain)
Taenia solium
Taenia solium transmitted by
ingestion of undercooked pork
Taenia solium treated with
- without cysticercosis
- with cysticercosis
praziquantel/niclosamide

albendazole
MOA of albendazole
inhibits tubulin polymerization, i.e., microtuble assembly
cestode (tapeworm)

cysts in liver
anaphylaxis (when antigens released from cysts)
Echinococcus granulosus
Echinococcus granulosus transmitted by
eggs in dog feces

(sheep herder with many sheep dogs)
Echinococcus granulosus treated with
albendazole
trematode (fluke):

granulomas, fibrosis, and inflammation of spleen and liver
Schistosoma
Schistosoma host
snails
Schistosoma transmitted by
penetration of skin by cercariae
Schistosoma treated with
praziquantel
trematode (fluke):

inflammation of biliary tract
Clonorchis sinensis
Clonorchis sinensis transmitted by
ingestion of undercooked fish
Clonorchis sinensis treated with
praziquantel
trematode (fluke):

inflammation and secondary bacterial infection of the lungs
Paragonimus westermani
Paragonimus westermani transmitted by
ingestion of undercooked crab meat
Paragonimus westermani treated with
praziquantel
nematode (roundworm):

intestinal infection --> anemia
Ancyclostoma duodenale (hookworm)
Ancyclostoma duodenale transmitted by
penetration of skin by larvae
Ancyclostoma duodenale treated with
mebendazole/pyrantel pamoate
MOA of pyrantel pamoate
depolarizes nematode NMJ's --> irreversible paralysis
nematode (roundworm):

intestinal infection
eggs visible in feces
Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm)
Ascaris lumbricoides treated with
mebendazole/pyrantel pamoate
mebendazole has same MOA as albendazole:

inhibits tubilin polymerization, i.e., microtubule assembly
Enterobius vermicularis treated with
mebendazole/pyrantel pamoate
nematode (roundworm):

intestinal infection
larvae in the soil
Strongyloides stercoralis
Strongyloides stercoralis transmitted by
penetration of skin by larvae found in the soil
Strongyloides stercoralis treated with
thiabendazole/ivermectin
MOA of ivermectin
hyperpolarization of NMJ --> paralysis
nematode (roundworm):

inflammation of muscle
periorbital edema
Trichinella spiralis
Trichinella spiralis transmitted by
ingestion of undercooked meat (usually pork)
Trichinella spiralis treated with
thiabendazole
nematode (roundworm):

skin inflammation and ulceration
Dracunculus medinensis
Dracunculus medinensis transmitted via
drinking water
Dracunculus medinensis treated with
niridazole
nematode (roundworm):

skin swelling
worm crawling in conjuctiva
Loa loa
Loa loa transmitted by
deer fly
Loa loa treated with
diethylcarbamazine
nematode (roundworm):

river blindness
Onchocerca volvulus
Onchocerca volvulus transmitted by
female blackfly
Onchocerca volvulus treated with
ivermectin
nematode (roundworm):

granulomas (in retina --> blindness)
visceral larva migrans
Toxocara canis
Toxocara canis transmitted by
food contaminated with eggs
Toxocara canis treated with
diethylcarbamazine
nematode (roundworm):

elephantiasis

due to
Wuchereria bancrofti

blockage of lymphatic vessels
Wuchereria bancrofti transmitted by
female mosquito
Wuchereria bancrofti treated with
diethylcarbamazine
brain cysts
seizures
Taenia solium (cysticercosis)
liver cysts
Echinococcus granulosus
biliary tract disease
Clonorchis sinensis
hemoptysis
Paragonimus westermani
portal HTN
Schistosoma mansoni
hematuria
bladder cancer
Schistosoma haematobium