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117 Cards in this Set

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cytokines induced by techoic acid (2)
TNF-α
IL-1
cytokines induced by Lipid A (2)
TNF-α
IL-1
mediates adherence to foreign bodies, e.g., indwelling catheters
glycocalyx
Chlamydia lack ______ in their cell wall
muramic acid
superantigens binds directly to ______ and ____
MHC class II molcecules (without antigen in binding domain)

TCR
T-cells activated by superantigens release (2)
IFN-γ (attracts macrophages)
IL-2
MOA of Vibrio cholerae A-B toxin
ADP-ribosylation of Gs (↑ AC --> ↑ cAMP)

(Vibrio cholerae turns "on" on)
MOA of heat labile E. coli A-B toxin
ADP-ribosylation of Gs (↑ AC --> ↑ cAMP)

(labile like the air = AC)
MOA of heat stable E. coli A-B toxin
↑ GC --> ↑ cGMP

(stable like the ground)
MOA of B. pertussis A-B toxin
ADP-ribosylation of Gi (↑ AC --> ↑ cAMP)

(Bordetella pertussis turns "off" off)
chemokine receptor inhibited by

results in
B. pertussis

lymphocytosis
double zone of hemolysis on blood agar
C. perfringens
MOA of C. tetani exotoxin
blocks release of inhibitory NT's, i.e., GABA and glycine
host cell rRNA cleaved by (2)
Shiga-toxin (Shigella)
Shiga-like toxin (E. coli 0157:H7)
cytokine release enhanced by (2)

result
Shiga toxin
Shiga-like toxin (E. coli O157:Ht)

HUS (microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia)
novobiocin sensitive Staph
Staph. epidermidis
novobiocin resistant Staph
Staph. saprophyticus
optochin sensitive Strep
Strep. pneumoniae
bile soluble Strep
Strep pneumoniae
optochin resistant Strep
Strep. mutans (Viridans Strep)
bile-insoluble Strep
Strep. mutans (Viridans Strep)
bacitracin sensitive Strep
Strep. pyogenes
bacitracin resistant Strep
Strep. agalactiae
α-hemolytic Strep (2)

appearance of hemolysis
Strep. pneumoniae
Strep. mutans (Viridans Strep)

green
β-hemolytic Strep (2)

appearance of hemolysis
Strep. pyogenes
Strep. agalactiae

halo
gram-positive rods (4)
Bacillus
Clostridium
Corynebacterium
Listeria
gram-negative cocobacilli (4)
Haemophilus
Bordetella
Pasteurella
Brucella
Pasteurella acquired via
animal bites
gram-negative bacilli, lactose fermenters (2)
E. coli
Klebsiella
gram-negative bacilli, lactose nonfermenters (4)
Pseudomonas
Shigella
Salmonella
Proteus
gram-negative bacillus, lactose nonfermenter, oxidase-positive
Pseudomonas
gram-negative bacilli, lactose nonfermenters, oxidase-negative (3)
Shigella
Salmonella
Proteus
grows on chocolate agar

requires (2)

factors acquired via
H. influenzae

factor V (NAD)
factor X (hematin)

hemolysis of RBC's (via heat or addition of S. aureus)

(when junior has the "flu" mom goes to the five and dime to buy chocolate)
grows on Tellurite plate
C. diphtheriae
grows on Loffler's medium
C. diphtheriae
grows on Lowenstein-Jensen agar
M. tuberculosis
Giemsa's stain stains (4)
Chlamydia
Borrelia
Plasmodium
Trypanosomes
silver stain stains (3)
Legionella
Pneuomocystis jirovecii
Fungi
bacterial toxins encoded in a lysogenic phage (4)
Botulinum toxin
Cholera toxin
Diphtheria toxin
Erythrogenic toxin

(BCDE)
Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, and Bacillus are examples of
obligate aerobes
Clostridium, Bacteroides, and Actinomyces are examples of

can't be treated with
obligate anaerobes

aminoglycosides (require O2 for uptake)
Rickettsia and Chlamydia are examples of
obligate intracellular bacteria
Salmonella, Neisseria, Brucella, Mycobacterium, Listeria, Francisella, Legionella, and Yersinia are examples of
facultative intracellular bacteria
Strep. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Klebsiella are examples of
encapsulated bacteria
bacteria that contain spores (3)
Bacillus anthracis
Clostridium perfringens
Clostridium tetani

(gram-positive bacilli)
bacteria:

tumbling motility
found in unpasteurized milk
causes meningitis in newborns
Listeria monocytogenes
S. aureus virulence factor

function
protein A

binds Fc portion of IgG to inhibit complement fixation and phagocytosis
rapid-onset food poisoning

bacteria
toxin
S. aureus

enterotoxin (preformed)
scalded skin syndrome

bacteria
toxin
S. aureus

exfoliative toxin
causes impetigo (2)
S. aureus
S. pyogenes
bacitracin sensitive streptococcus
S. pyogenes
bacteria:

subcutaneous nodules
migratory polyarthritis
erythema marginatum
carditis
Strep. pyogenes
optochin sensitive streptococcus
Strep. pneumoniae
bacitracin resistant streptococcus
Strep. agalactiae
lancefield group D streptococcus

resistant to
enterococci

penicillin G
optochin resistant Strep.
Viridans strep. (S. mutans and S. sanguis)

(viridans strep live in the mouth because they are not afraid of-the-chin = op-to-chin)
genus:

gram-positive, spore-forming, obligate anaerobic bacilli
Clostridium
C. difficile is treated with
metronidazole

(C. difficile is an obligate anerobe)
bacteria:

gram-positive rod with metachromatic granules
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
gram-negative bacteria are resistant to
penicillin G
causes epiglottitis

treatment
Haemophilus influenzae

ceftriaxone (3rd gen. ceph)
E.coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Serratia, and Proteus are examples of
enterobacteriaceae
enterobacteriaceae ferment
glucose
causes nosocomial UTI's
Klebsiella
Klebsiella, E.coli, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter are examples of
lactose-fermenting enteric bacteria
salmonella vs. shigella:

symptoms prolonged with antibiotic treatment
salmonella
salmonella vs. shigella:

monocyte response
salmonella
contaminated seafood (2)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Vibrio vulnificus
reheated meat dishes
Clostridium perfringens
bloody diarrhea
grows at 42C
oxidase positive
Campylobacter jejuni

(gram-negative curved rod with polar flagellum)
Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, Enteroinvasive (inflammatory) E. coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Clostridium difficile, and Entamoeba histolytica are examples of
organisms that cause bloody diarrhea
Enterotoxigenic E. coli, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium perfringens, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium (in immunocompromised), Rotavirus, Adenovirus, and Norwalk viruses are examples of
organisms that cause watery diarrhea
promotes lymphocytosis by inhibiting chemokine receptors
B. pertussis A-B toxin
Treatment for Legionella pneumophilia
erythromycin
Treatment for Pseudomonas
aminoglycoside + extended spectrum penicillin (piperacillin, ticarcillin)
H. pylori gram stain
gram-negative bacillus
Treatment regimens for H. pylori (2)
bismuth
metronidazole
tetracycline/amoxicillin

or

omeprazole
metronidazole
clarithromycin
undulant fever (low in the morning, high in the evening)
Brucella
sources of Brucella (2)
dairy products
contact with animals
Francisella tularensis transmitted by

reservoir (2)
tick bite

deer
rabbit
Pasteurella multocida causes
cellulitis
Pasteurella multocida transmitted by
animal bite (cats and dogs)
+PPD signifies
current infection with M. TB
past exposure to M. TB
vaccination with BCG
-PPD signifies
no infection with M. TB
anergy
anergy to PPD due to (3)
malnutrition
immunocompromise
steroids
Ghon complex involves (2)

sign of
lower lobes (Gohn focus)
hilar LN's

primary TB (TB granuloma)
sign of secondary TB
fibrocaseous cavitary lesion (upper lobe)
Mycobacterium:

pulmonary TB-like symptoms
M. kansasii
Mycobacterium:

cervical lymphadenitis in children
M. scrofulaceum
Treatment of M. leprae
dapsone
SE's of dapsone (2)
hemolysis (in pts. with G6PD deficiency)

methemoglobinemia
alternate treatment for M. leprae
rifampin
Rickettsiae require ____ and ___ for survival
CoA

NAD+
Coxiella infection causes
pneumonia
Treatment for Rickettsial infections
tetracycline
Rickettsia:

rash starts on hands and feet and progresses to the body
R. rickettsii (RMSF)

(rockey mountin sPotted fever has a centriPetal rash)
Rickettsia

rash starts on the body and progresses to the hands and feet
endemic typhus (R. typhi)

epidemic typhus (R. prowazekii)

(typhus has a centrifugal rash)
Rickettsiae:

-Weil-Felix
Coxiella burnetii
Rickettsiae:

no rash
Coxiella burnetii

(pneumonia instead of rash)
Weil-Felix test
antirickettsial Ab's cross-react with Proteus antigen
grows on Eaton's agar
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Treatment for Mycoplasma pneumoniae (2)
tetracycline

erythromycin

(Mycoplasma has no cell wall)
infectious component of Chlamydiae
elementary body
metabolically active component of Chlamydiae
reticulate body

(located intracellularly)
Chlamydiae:

atypical pneumonia (2)
C. pneumoniae
C. psittaci
Treatment for chlamydial infections (2)
tetracyline

erythromycin

(Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular parasites because they cannot make their own ATP)
Chlamydiae:

neonatal pneumonia
neonatal conjunctivitis
nongonococcal urethritis
Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D through K
Borrelia burgdorferi reservoir
mice
cycles through deer
Treatment for B. burgdorferi
tetracycline
stage 1 of Lyme disease (2)
erythema chronicum migrans
flu-like symptoms
stage 2 of Lyme disease (2)
neurologic manifestations (Bell's palsy)
cardiac manifestations (heart block)
stage 3 of Lyme disease
autoimmune migratory polyarthritis
secondary syphilis (2)
maculopapular rash (palms and soles)
condylomata lata
tertiary syphilis (4)
gummas
aortitis (ascending aorta)
tabes dorsalis
Argyll Robertson pupils - accomodates, but does not react to light
congenital syphilis causes (4)
deafness
saddle nose
saber shins
Hutchinson teeth (notched teeth)
broad-based ataxia
+Romberg
Charcot joints
stroke without HTN
tertiary syphilis
mononucleosis, hepatitis, drugs, rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, and leprosy can cause
false positive VDRL

Viruses (mononucleosis, hepatitis)
Drugs
Rheumatic fever, Rheumatoid arthritis
Leprosy, Lupus