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198 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which of the following is not a gram negative genus?

Enterobacteriaceae
Campylobacter
Pasteurella
Brucella
Clostridium
Clostridium
Which of the following is not a gram negative genus?

Pseudomonas
Actinomyces
Bordetella
Legionella
Vibrio
Actinomyces
Which of the following is not a gram negative genus?

Nocardia
Neisseria
Helicobacter
Haemophilus
Francesella
Nocardia
Which of the following is not a gram negative genus?

Vibrio
Pasteurella
Propionibacterium
Legionella
Enterobacteriaceae
Propionibacterium
Which of the following do not belong in the Enterobacteriaceae family?

Yersinia
Proteus
Bacillus
Shigella
Salmonella
Bacillus
Which of the following do not belong in the Enterobacteriaceae family?

Clostridium
E. coli
Shigella
Klebsiella
Clostridium
Which of the following do not belong in the Enterobacteriaceae family?

Proteus
Salmonella
E. coli
Neisseria
Neisseria
Which of the following do not belong in the Enterobacteriaceae family?

Yersinia
Legionella
Salmonella
Shigella
Legionella
Which of the following do not belong in the Enterobacteriaceae family?

Francisella
Shigella
Proteus
E. coli
Francisella
Which of the following do not belong in the Enterobacteriaceae family?

Klebsiella
Proteus
Haemophilus
E. coli
Haemophilus
Name the Gram Neg. cocci that we studied in class
Neisseria
Gram-neg. diplococci
Aerobic
catalase +
Non-motile
species include: gonorrhoeae and meningitidis
Neisseria
Name the two species in the Neisseria genus
N. gonorrhoeae
N. meningitidis
Name the species characteristic of a non-capsulated bacteria, with long fimbriae and many outer membrane proteins, that causes the second most common venereal disease
N. gonorrhoeae
Outer membrane proteins of N. gonorrhoeae
Opa
Por
Rmp
Transferrin binding protein
Lactoferrin binding protein
Hemoglobin binding protein
LOS
Transferrin binding protein, Lactoferrin binding protein, and Hemoglobin binding protein are in which bacterial species
N. gonorrhoeae
What is the function of Transferrin binding protein, Lactoferrin binding protein, and Hemoglobin binding protein
multiplication factors which are involved in ion aggregation (competing with host for ions)
What are the three most important virulence factors of N. gonorrhoeae?
1. long Fimbriae for initial attachment to host's epithelium

2. Opa protein--firm attachment to host

3. LOS (Lipooligosaccharide)--allows it to resist host immune response by binding sialic acid
T/F non-fimbriated N. gonorrhoeae cells are harmless
true.

Only fimbriated N. gonorrhoeae are virulent
Function of LOS in N. gonorrhoeae
Responsible for most symptoms of gonorrhea

elicits inflammatory response

binds sialic acid, allowing it to resist host imune response
Which statement is false about N. gonorrhoeae?
1. Humans are only natural hosts
2. Transmission by aerosolized toxin inhalation
3. Needs close mucous membrane contracts to survive
4. Higer risk for patients without membrane attack complex (MAC)
2. Transmission is primarily by sex
The second most commonly reported bacterial STD
Gonorrhea
T/F: Gonorrhea is characterized by painful ulcers on genitals.
False. Gonorrhea is characterized by purulent discharge. Chancroid is painful ulcers
Which of the following is not a bacterial STD pathogen?

Vibrio vulnificus
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Haemophilus ducreyi
Treponema pallidum
Chlamydia trachomatis
Vibrio vulnificus
Two of the following are bacterial STD pathogens that exhibits purulent discharge:

Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Haemophilus ducreyi
Treponema pallidum
Chlamydia trachomatis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae and
Chlamydia trachomatis
Haemophilus ducreyi causes which STD
Chancroid (painful ulcer)
Two of the following are bacterial STD pathogens that are intracellular pathogens:

Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Haemophilus ducreyi
Treponema pallidum
Chlamydia trachomatis
Treponema pallidum and
Chlamydia trachomatis
Treponema pallidum causes which bacterial STD?
syphillis
Ophthalmia neonatorum and Disseminated infections from genitourinary tract through blood to skin or joints are from which bacterial species?
N. gonorrhoeae
Thayer-Martin agar is used for culturing bactera from which genus?
Neisseria (N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis)
This agar, used for culturing and isolating Neisseria bacteria, contains vancomycin, colistin, and nystatin
Thayer-Martin agar
This bacteria is identical in morphological characteristics to N. gonorrhoese, except that it has a polysaccharide capsule.
N. meningitidis
Virulence factors of N. meningitidis
Polysaccharide capsule and
LOS
T/F: N. meningitidis is a baby-killer
True.
Two diseases of N. meningitidis
Meningococcal meningitis (2nd most common meningitis)

Meningococcemia--N. meningitidis in blood stream..leads to necrosis
Which of the following Enterobacteriaceae is not a food-poisoning bacterial pathogen?

E. coli
Salmonella
Shigella
Yersinia enterocolitica
Klebsiella
Klebsiella
This Gram Neg bacilli family (genus) shares a common antigen (enterobacterial common antigen)
Enterobacteriaceae
3 Serologic classifcation groups in Enterobacteriaceae
Capsule (K antigen)
Flagellar (H antigen)
Somatic O polysaccharide (O antigen of LPS)
Match these serologic classifcations of enterobacteriacae with their antigen:

Capsule [] H antigen
Flagellar [] O antigen
Somatic O polysac. [] K antigen
Capsule--> K antigen
Flagellar --> H antigen
Somatic O polysaccharide --> O antigen
Motile or Non-motile? E. coli
Motile
Not on test but on boards:
Motile or Non-motile? Salmonella
Motile
Not on test but on boards:
Motile or Non-motile? Yersinia
Motile
Not on test but on boards:
Motile or Non-motile? Proteus
Motile
Not on test but on boards:
Motile or Non-motile? shigella
Non-Motile
Not on test but on boards:
Motile or Non-motile? Klebsiella
Non-Motile
Not on test but on boards:
Fermenter or Non-fermenter?
E. coli
Fermenter
Not on test but on boards:
Fermenter or Non-fermenter?
Klebsiella
Fermenter
Not on test but on boards:
Fermenter or Non-fermenter?
Salmonella
Non-fermenter
Not on test but on boards:
Fermenter or Non-fermenter?
Shigella
Non-fermenter
Not on test but on boards:
Fermenter or Non-fermenter?
Yersinia
Non-fermenter
Not on test but on boards:
Fermenter or Non-fermenter?
Proteus
Non-fermenter
Important Exotoxins of E. coli
Shiga toxins (stx)
Shiga-like toxins
Heat-labile enterotoxins (LT)
Heat-stable enterotoxin (ST)
Hemolysin
Which of the following E. coli exotoxins are A/B toxins:

Shiga toxins (stx)
Shiga-like toxins
Heat-labile enterotoxins (LT)
Heat-stable enterotoxin (ST)
Hemolysin
Shiga toxins (stx)
Shiga-like toxins
Heat-labile enterotoxins (LT)
Which of the following E. coli exotoxins is a superantigen:

Shiga toxins (stx)
Shiga-like toxins
Heat-labile enterotoxins (LT)
Heat-stable enterotoxin (ST)
Hemolysin
Heat-stable enterotoxin (ST)
Shiga toxin (Stx) in E. coli has what function?
Interacts with ribosomes to inhibit protein synthesis causing hemolytic uremic syndrome
What causes hemolytic uremic syndrome?
Shiga toxin (Stx)
Most frequently isolated nosocomial pathogen in hospital
Staph. aureus
Extra-intestinal diseases of E. coli (3)
1. UTI
2. Septicemia
3. Neonatal meningitis
Intestinal disease (gastroenteritis) of E. coli by 5 pathogenic groups:
Entero________ E. coli

ETEC (toxigenic)
EIEC (invasive)
EHEC (hemorrhagic)
EPEC (pathogenic)
EAEC (aggregative)
E. coli group with the following characteristics:
non-invastive, secretes ST-like toxin and hemolysin
EAEC (aggregative)
E. coli group with the following characteristics:
non-invasive, secretes LT and/or ST, a.k.a "traveler's diarrhea"
ETEC (toxigenic)
(Think "T" for "Traveler's")
E. coli group with the following characteristics:
moderately invasive, works by an "attaching-effacing" mechanism that strips microvilli (compromised absorption). Symptoms result mainly from invasion rather than toxigenesis
EPEC (pathogenic)
E. coli group with the following characteristics:moderately invasive, secretes shiga toxin in addition to "attaching-effacing" mechanism; famous strain of this category is E. coli O157:H7
EHEC (hemorrhagic)
E. coli group with the following characteristics:
Invasive, facultative intracellular, type III injection of toxin system, dysentery-like diarrhea, potentially fatal
EIEC (invasive)
T/F Most common form of E. coli diarrhea in US from O157:H7 (McDonalds and Dole spinach)
True
E. coli producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases is currently resulting in what?
E. coli multiple-drug resistance
Species in Enterobacteriaceae family that is facultative, intracelluar, resistant to bile acids/salts, and acquired by eating contaminated food
Salmonella
Salmonella species passed person to person
S. typhi
Salmonella species found in contaminated vegetables, eggs and pet reptiles
S. enteritidis
Tyhoid fever caused by:
Salmonella typhi
Salmonella typhi: _____ fever
"Typhoid"
Salmonella causes acute or chronic gastroenteritis
acute
T/F: Enteritis from Salmonella poisoning is properly treated with penicillin
False. Antibiotic NOT recommended
Species in Enterobacteriaceae family that is facultative, intracelluar, resistant to bile acids/salts, and acquired by contact with water polluted with human feces (fecal-oral route)
Shigella
Children who do not wash hands properly after bowel movement at risk for what bacterial disease?
Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery)
T/F: Shigella is highly infectious
True
Bacteria species responsible for Black Death
Yersinia pestis
How do Yersinia exotoxins enter human cells?
Type III secretion system (needle)
YopH, YopE, and YopJ/P are exotoxins of what bacterial family?
Yersinia
T/F Yersinia Type III secretion mediates resistance to phagocytic killing
true
Y. pestis is zoonotic or from raw pork?
zoonotic
Y. enterocolitica is zoonotic or from raw pork?
raw pork
Y. enterocolitica causes what disease?
Gastroenteritis
Disease from Klebsiella
K. pneumoniae causes pneumonia especially in malnourished alcoholics and is a frequent UTI pathogen
This bacterial species causes pneumonia especially in malnourished alcoholics and is a frequent UTI pathogen
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Which of the following tolerates a high-salt environment, but does not need it:

Vibrio vulnificus
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
V. cholerae
gram-neg. rods, single flagellum, facultative, cannot tolerate acidic environment, usually halophilic
Vibrio
O1 and O139 strains Vibrio bacteria cause what disease?
cholera
cholera caused by?
Vibrio cholerae
Role of Cholera enterotoxin
increase cAMP --> watery diarrhea
How is V. cholerae transferred to humans?
contaminated water
Rice-water stool associated with what disease?
Cholera
How do you treat cholera?
Rehydration.
Most antibiotics don't do much (tetracyclin may help)
V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus both love _____ and are transferred to humans by ____________________.
salt

ingestion of undercooked shellfish or raw oysters
Swimming in the ocean with an open wound may make you vulnerable to this bacteria
Vibrio vulnificus
Campylobacter is:
obligate aerobic
microaerophile
facultative
obligate anaerobe
microaerophile
This is the #1 food poisoning bacteria in the US
Campylobacter jejuni
Name 2 bacteria that are hippurase positive:
Strep. agalactiae
and
Campylobacter jejuni
Most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in US
Campylobacter jejuni
T/F: most patients need antibiotics to recover from C. jejuni
false...most patients recover without antibiotic therapy
Leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in US
Campylobacter jejuni
Review (Gram +): B. cereus: types of foods
starchy foods (refried rice)
Review (Gram +) C. botulinum: toxins
spore, botulinum toxin
Review (Gram +) C. botulinum: types of foods
canned foods
honey
Review (Gram +) C. botulinum: symptoms
botulism--flaccidity, no vomiting or diarrhea
Review (Gram +) Listeria monocytogenes: temperature sensitivity
grows at refrigeration temperatures and in high salted foods like bacon and ham
Enteric E. coli: toxin
heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxin, shiga, shiga-like toxin
Salmonella: types of food
egg, poultry, reptiles, vegetables
Shigella: symptoms
dysentery
Y. entercolitica: temperature sensitivity
prefers refrigerator temperature
Vibrio: habitat
water, fish, shellfish
Vibrio: symptoms
rice-water stool
C. jejuni: toxin
We don't know. But it is the #1 cause of bacterial diarrhea
multiple flagella at one pole, urease positive, colonizes in stomach
helicobacter pylori
Most recurrent gastric ulcers are caused by what bacterial species?
helicobacter pylori
Virulence factors of H. pylori
flagella, mucinase, urease
This organism overcomes acidic problem of living in human stomach with urease activity to increase pH by ammonia production
H. pylori
Most common chronic bacterial infection of humans
H. pylori
This microorganism may cause gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcers, or gastric adenocarcinomas
H. pylori
Name three cancer-associated bacteria
Strep. bovis: if in blood, indicator of colon cancer

Clostridium septicum: if in blood, indicator of colon cancer

H. pylori: causative agent of gastric adenocarcinomas
Lab diagnosis of this bacteria will give you a positive urease test
H. pylori
If you have H. pylori, you can most easily find out by:
a blood antibody test
Triple therapy for H. pylori:
Cytoprotective agents (pepto-bismol)
Proton-pump inhibitors
Antibiotics
Growth of this bacteria in vitro requires hemin (X factor) and NAD (V factor)
Haemophilus
Haemophilus requires what two factors to grow in vitro?
hemin (X factor) and NAD (V factor)
hemin aka?
X factor
NAD aka?
V factor
X factor aka
hemin
V factor aka
NAD
H. influenzae and H. ducreyi both belong to what genus....(starts with an H...)
Haemophilus
What are the two mentioned Haemophilus species mentioned in class?
H. influenzae and H. ducreyi
T/F: H. influenzae causes the flu
False. Influenza virus causes the flu
Capsule swelling test used for which two bacteria?
H. influenzae and
S. pneumoniae
Most virulent strain of H. influenzae, responsible for 95% disease
H. influenzae type b (Hib)
Important virulence factor of H. influenzae composed of polysaccharide
Polysaccharide capsule type b
Polysaccharide capsule type b contains what kind of molecule used in vaccination for H. influenzae
polyribitol phosphate (PRP)
Which statement about H. influenzae epidemiology is incorrect:
1. Non-capsulated Haemophilus species are in normal flora
2. Capsulated Haemophilus species are in normal flora
3. H. influenzae constitutes 10% of flora in saliva
4. Hib was most common cause of meningitis in children before its vaccine in 1987
The following phrase is false:

2. Capsulated Haemophilus species are in normal flora
Primary diseases in children unimmunized by Hib
epiglottitis
meningitis
bacteremia
List 4 bacterial baby-killers
Strep. agalactiae
Neisseria meningitidis
E. coli
Hib (Haemophilus influenzae b)
H. influenzae can be easily detected in which bodily fluid?
CSF
To culture H. influenzae, you need what factors?
NAD (factor V) and
Hemin (factor X)
This bacteria causes an STD called chancroid (painful ulcers on genitals)...lesions are similar to those of syphilis
H. ducreyi
facultative intracellular pathogen; main hosts are amoeba and human macrophages
Legionella pneumophila
Virulence factors for legionella pneumophila
intracellular in macrophages
prevent phagolysosome
produce beta-lactamase
immunosuppression, cigarette smoking, renal failure, age greater than 50 years, AIDs, hematologic malignancies, and lung cancer are all risk factors for which bacteria?
Legionella pneumophila
Two diseases from Legionella pneumophila
Legionnaire's disease: severe pneumonia

Pontiac fever: influenza-like
Lab diagnosis of L. pneumophila on what kind of plate?
Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract (BCYE) agar with L-cysteine
What are the two "pet bite" infectious bacteria?
Pasteurella and
Bartonella
This bacteria is transmitted from dogs/cats (bites, kissing, fleas); true zoonotic
Pasteurella multocida
This bacteria causes "cat-scratch disease"; zoonotic
Bartonella henselae
Bartonellosis aka?
cat-scratch disease
Extremely small Gram Neg bacteria (3)
Bordetella
Brucella
Francisella
Which bacteria causes pertussis?
Bordetella pertussis
Disease from Brucella
Brucellosis
Causes Tularemia
Francisella Tularensis
Bacteria causing non-invasive infection of ciliated respiratory epithelial cells
Bordetella pertussis
Bacteria for Whooping Cough
Bordetella pertussis
Pertussis aka?
Whooping Cough
Bordetella pertussis virulence factors: Adhesins
Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and Pertussis toxin (A/B toxin)
Bordetella pertussis virulence factors: Toxins
Pertussis toxin (A/B toxin)
Adenylate cyclase/hemolysin toxin (A/B toxin)
Does NOT cause bacteremia
B. pertussis virulence factor that is both an Adhesin and a Toxin
Pertussis toxin (A/B toxin)
Ciliary stasis caused by which bacteria and what specific virulence factor?
Bordetella pertussis
FHA (Filamentous hemagglutinin
Effects of Pertussis toxin (molecular and physiological)
Increase cAMP
Increase Respiratory secretions and mucus production
Bordet and Gengou agar (glycerin-potato-blood agar) used to classify which bacteria?
B. pertussis
The most sensitive and specific test for B. pertussis is...
Nucleic acid amplification tests
Treatment of pertussis
macrolide and DPT vaccine (for pertussis toxin)
Facultative Intracellular pathogen. Predominantly infects animals; has significant host specificity
Brucella
Fact: Brucella is a true zoonotic disease
Fact: Brucella is a true zoonotic disease
Undulant fever or Malta fever aka?
Brucellosis
Brucellosis aka?
Undulant fever or Malta fever
tularemia aka?
rabbit fever
rabbit fever caused by which bacteria
Francisella tularensis
Which statement is false?

1. Francisella tularensis found in rabbits and ticks
2. True zoonotic
3. Transmitted by animal fluids and inhaling infective aerosols
4. Can be transmitted human to human
#4 is false. F. tularensis CANNOT be transmitted from human to human
True zoonotic bacterial pathogens (11)
Bacillus anthracis
Yersinia pestis
Pasteurella multocida
Bartonella henselae
Brucella spp
Francisella tularensis
Borrelia burgdorfer
Leptospira interrogans
Rickettsia rickettsii
Ehrlichia chaffeensis
Coxiella burnetii
Tick-borne bacterial diseases (4)
Tularemia
Lyme disease
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME)
Tularemia caused by which bacteria?
Francisella tularensis
Lyme disease caused by which bacteria?
Borrelia burgdorferi
Rocky Mountain spotted fever caused by which bacteria?
Rickettsia rickettsii
Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) caused by which bacteria?
Ehrlichia chaffeensis
F. tularensis cultured on what kind of agar plate?
buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE) agar containing L-cysteine
Which two bacteria are cultured on a buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE) agar containing L-cysteine
F. tularensis and
L. pneumophila
The most important opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised individuals
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Slime layer
Exotoxin A
Acquired Antibiotic Resistance
Which two toxins (from 2 different bacteria) both inhibit protein synthesis by targeting EF2?
Pseudomonas exotoxin A and diphtheria toxin
Tetanus toxin biological effect
A/B toxin; Spastic paralysis. Block inhibitory transmitters (GABA and glycine)
Botulinum toxin biological effect
A/B toxin; Flaccid paralysis
Diphteria toxin biological effect
A/B toxin: decrease EF-2 and terminates translation
Shiga toxin biological effect
A/B toxin; decrease translation by inhibiting ribosome
Shiga-like toxin bio. effect
A/B toxin; decrease translation by inhibiting ribosome
Heat-labile enterotoxin from organism?
A/B toxin; ETEC, and salmonella
Heat-labile enterotoxin biological effect?
A/B toxin; increase cAMP and secretory diarrhea
Cholera enterotoxin bio. effect
A/B toxin; increase cAMP and secretory diarrhea
Pertussis toxin biological effect
A/B toxin; increase cAMP and increase respiratory secretions
Adenylate cyclase toxin biological effect
A/B toxin; increase cAMP and increase respiratory secretions
Pseudomonas exotoxin A
A/B toxin; decrease protein synthesis (EF2)
Burn infection, swimmer's ear, and hot-tub rash from which bacteria?
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
contaminated contact lens cleansing fluids leads to bacterial infection from...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Which bacteria has grape-like odor and colonies of a variety of pigmentation
Pseudomonas aeruginosa