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31 Cards in this Set

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This is the termenology for the physical and functional traits observable by the genes that are expressed
Phenotype
This is the Termenology for a region of the DNA that encodes a SINGLE protein
Cistron
This is a group of MULTIPLE genes transcribed from a single promoter. it produces a single polycistronic mRNA
Operon
DNA serves as the template for making mRNA in a process called __________
Transcription
Where does Translation occur?
On ribosomes
__ nucleotides= 1 codon= 1 AA
3
This is a special tyoe of codon that does not code for an AA
Stop codon
T/F: in eukaryotes, transcription and translation are coupled (Translation can begin on the unfinished mRNA as it is being made)
FALSE... in PROKARYOTES
T/F: Mutations change the Genotype but does not necessarily change the phenotype
True
What are the 3 types of mutations and what do they do?
Substitution: One nucleotide is changed

Inversion: Adjacent nucleotides change positions

Insertion/ Deletion: one or more nucleotides are added or removed from the sequence
This is a result of a mutation that causes NO change to the phenotype
Silent Mutations
This is a result of a mutation that DOES change the AA.
Missense Mutation
This is a result of a mutation that introduces a stop codon
Nonsense Mutations
Are Plasmids Self-Repiclating?
YES
T/F: Plasmid genes are essential for survival of the bacteria
FALSE... they are not essential
These are segments of ds DNA that can move within a genome, to another genome, or into a plasmid.

They CAN NOT replicate independently!
Transposons
This is one of the mechanisms of genetic transfer that requires DIRECT contact between the doner and recipient cells
Conjugation (bacterial sex)
The is a Mechanism of genetic transfer that involves incorporation of FREE DNA
Transformation
This is a Mechanism of genetic transfer where DNA transfer is mediated by BACTERIOPHAGES
Transduction
Where does genetic Transfer occur in Conjugation
pilus
In conjugation, the donor plasmid must contain the _______, which contains info for the synthesis of the pilus
F Plasmid
What gets transferred to the recipient cell in Conjugation if the F plasmid is extrachromosomal?
ONLY the F plasmid
What gets transferred to the recipient cell in Conjugation if the F plasmid is Integrated?
CHROMOSOMAL genes adjacent to the plasmid

This is called Hfr (High Frequency)
The ability of bacteria to incorporate the free DNA is called ________
competence
During this process, FREE DNA is often taken into a cell- once inside, it may be degraded, or added to the genome.
Transformation
In this type of Transduction, Phage DNA does NOT become integrated into the barcterial genome
Generalized Transduction
T/F: in Generalized Transduction, Random fragments of genomic DNA are packaged into ALL of the Phage heads
FALSE... only some... True in SPECIALIZED Transduction
What are the two types of particles generated in Generalized Transduction, and what do they consist of?
Bacteriophages: ONLY VIRAL DNA

Transducing particles ONLY BACTERIAL DNA
In specialized Transduction, the Phage DNA does NOT become integrated into the bacterial genome
FALSE... it DOES become integrated

This would be true for Generalized transduction
What type of particle s produced in Specialized Transduction? what does it contain?
Recombinant phage: contains VIRAL AND BACTERIAL DNA
DNA is ______ into mRNA
mRNA is _______ into proteins
Transcribed
Translated