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38 Cards in this Set

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What is the most common cause of ascending UTI?
E.coli
This organism produces Urinary Stones (calculi)
Proteus Mirabilis
T/F
Viruses are one of the greatest causes of UTI.
False...
Certain viruses can be recovered from urine in the absence of UT disease
This organism has a particular propensity in causing UTI in young sexually active women?
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
(just remember vaginal sap... one of the great byproducts of sex)
Produces potent urease
P. mirabilis
These two species are most often associated with UTI in hospitalized pts where their multiple antibiotics resistance can cause tx difficulties?
Staphylococcus epidermis and Enterococcus
Urease:
acts on what?
causes what?
acts on urea to produce ammonia making urine alkaline
Certain serotypes of thisvirus has been implicated as a cause of HEMORRHAGIC CYSTITIS.
Adenovirus
This virus enters the body via the respiratory tract and spread through the body and infect epithelial cells in the kidney tubules and ureter where they estabilsh latency but not infectious virus.
Human Polyomaviruses (JC and BK)
This rodent borne form of virus infects capillary blood vessels in the kidney and can cause a renal syndrome
HANTAvirus
T/F
Many different forms of parasites cause UTI.
False
2 fungi that cause UTI
Candida albicans and Histoplasma capsulatum
The protozoa that causes urethritis in makes and vaginitis in females
Trichomonas vaginalis
Infection with this causes inflammation of the bladder.
Schistosoma haematobium
T/F
A variety of mechanical factors predispose a person to UTI.
True
-anything that disrupts NL urine flow or complete emptying of the bladder or facilities access of organisms to the bladder will predispose one to infection.
This makes women's UT less effective in avoiding infx
Shorter urethra
Sex facilitates the movement of organisms up the urethra (we got screwed... always pee after sex)
This makes UTIs more common in male infants.
Uncircumcized peniseses-- allows for colonization of the urethra with fecal organisms
This may lead to ascent of infection into the kidney
residual urine of more than 2-3 mL
This problem may lead to obstruction of urine flow and recurrent infx.
loss of neurological control of bladder--> residual volume in the bladder
This is common in children with anatomic abnormalities of the UT and predisposes them to ascending infx and kidney damage
Vesicoureteral Reflux (goes back to the ureters from the bladder)
T/F
most urinary pathogens originate in the________, but only special _________ and facultative species such __________ can colonize and infect the UT.
fecal flora
aerobic
E.coli
Some serotypes of E.coli have particular types of ________ which enable them to adhere to urethral and bladder epithelium.
fimbriae
Production of _________ by E.coli is linked with the capacity to cause kidney damage.
Hemolysin
T/F
A healthy UT is resistant to bacterial colonization
True
Three mechanisms of the UT that dispose of organisms in the urethra.
1. pH
2. chemical content
3. flushing mechanism
Three clinical features of ACUTE LOWER UTIs.
1. dysuria
2. frequency
3. urgency
Three features of urine during ACUTE LOWER UTIs
1. pyuria
2. hematuria
3. bacteriuria
DX of Acute Lower UTI
UA/UC
This is usually caused by people lacking antibacterial substances normally found in prostatic fluid; usually caused by E.coli
Acute Bacterial Prostatis
S&S of Acute Bacterial Prostatis
fever
back pain
dysuria
frequency
The infection has ascended form the bladder to the upper UT and kidney
Upper UTIs
Infection of the kidney; pt have lower UT symptoms plus fever... (you know this... think CVA tenderness)
Pyelonephritis (oh god not again)
This is a common case of Pyelonephritis and renal abscesses are usually present
Staphylococci
Repeated episodes of Pyelonephritis leads to...
HTN and loss of fx of renal tissue
Pyelonephritis
Lab Findings
Bacteriuria- >10^5 org/mL
only one bacteria species
Sample collection
urine is collected in a sterile container after carfully cleansing the external genitalia with soap and HOH and after allowing the first part of the urine to be voided to wash out the urethral contaminants
(babies get a U bag)
(catheter w/ syringe is also acceptable)
Tx of UTI
Antibacterail agents
(Augmentin)
Prevention of UTI
regularly emptying the bladder(especially after sex)
prophylactic use of Abx may prevent recurrent infx
reduce infx by good catheter care proceedures