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165 Cards in this Set

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Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is caused by _
Measles virus
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is caused by _
Papovavirus JC
Chronic panencephalitis is caused by _
Rubella virus
Names of diseases caused by prions
Kuru
CJD
GSS
FFI - fatal familial insomnia
vCJD
Describe disease caused by prions
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
- Neuronal loss in grey matter - concomittant with appearance of many vacuoles
Characteristics of prions
- From person to person
- No DNA or RNA
- Can not be destroyed by UV, heat or formaldehyde
Describe Kuru disease
- Occurs in cannibals
- Formation of plaque
- Ataxia, tremor, loss of speech, paralysis
- Fatal within one year
CJD
- No plaque formation
- 1: 2 million
- 90% sporadic - 5-10% familial
- IN OLDER PEOPLE - 60-65 year olds
- Fatal in 3-6 months
- EEG with pseudoperiodic sharp complexes
Describe symptoms of CJD
- Dementia/hallucinations
- Myoclonus
- Cerebellar ataxia
- Blindness
GSS forms of CJD
- Earlier age of onset (30-35 years)
- Slower progression - 3-5 years
Mad Cow disease is also called
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
- Spread by ingestion of contaminated meat
Describe non typical or virion CJD (vCJD)
Age of onset - 19-24
TIme before death - 6 months- 2 years
- Formation of plaque
Main difference between typical and atypical CJD
- Formation of plaque
Caliciviruses are
_ stranded?
- symmetry?
- naked or enveloped
Positive stranded
Naked
Icosahedral
Example of caliciviruses
Hepatitis E
Norwalk virus
Viral GI in infants vs adults
Infants - rotavirus
Adults - Norwalk
If you can walk you _ Norwalk
Where do you most commonly see Norwalk virus
Cruise ships
Vacations
Why is Norwalk virus good GI virus
- Naked - does not have an envelope so will not be destroyed by high acidity
Flaviviridae viruses are
_ stranded
_ symmetry
_ enveloped or naked
Positive stranded
Icosahedral
Enveloped
Flaviviridae viruses are spread by _ and cause _
Mosquitos
Encephalitis
Examples of flaviviridae viruses
West Nile
Yellow fever
Dengue
Major cause of encephalitis spread by mosquitos in US
St. Lois encephalitis - causes encephalitis or aseptic meningitis
Dengue disease is also called
Break bone fever - very painful muscle cramps, multiple hemorrhages, can go into shock (especially when reinfected)
Viral GI in infants vs adults
Infants - rotavirus
Adults - Norwalk
If you can walk you _ Norwalk
Where do you most commonly see Norwalk virus
Cruise ships
Vacations
Why is Norwalk virus good GI virus
- Naked - does not have an envelope so will not be destroyed by high acidity
Two characteristic symptoms of yellow fever
- Black vomit
- Jaundice
Flaviviridae viruses are
_ stranded
_ symmetry
_ enveloped or naked
Positive stranded
Icosahedral
Enveloped
Flaviviridae viruses are spread by _ and cause _
Mosquitos
Encephalitis
Examples of flaviviridae viruses
West Nile
Yellow fever
Dengue
Which of the flavi viruses have vaccine
Yellow fever
Major cause of encephalitis spread by mosquitos in US
St. Lois encephalitis - causes encephalitis or aseptic meningitis
Dengue disease is also called
Break bone fever - very painful muscle cramps, multiple hemorrhages, can go into shock (especially when reinfected)
Two characteristic symptoms of yellow fever
- Black vomit
- Jaundice
Which of the flavi viruses have vaccine
Yellow fever
Name togaviruses
- Arboviruses (mosquitos) - equine encephalitis
- Rubella
Rubella crosses placenta - T/F
True - one of the TORCHES diseases that crosses placenta
Rubella is transmitted through
Respiratory route - droplets
Congenital rubella syndrome causes what in infant
Cataracts and deafness
Describe rash in rubella
Starts at the forehead - spreads all over body
Name togaviruses
- Arboviruses (mosquitos) - equine encephalitis
- Rubella
Rubella crosses placenta - T/F
True - one of the TORCHES diseases that crosses placenta
Rubella is transmitted through
Respiratory route - droplets
Congenital rubella syndrome causes what in infant
Cataracts and deafness
Describe rash in rubella
Starts at the forehead - spreads all over body
Baby with rubella is also called
Blueberry muffin baby
Viruses causing common cold - #1 and #2
#1 - Rhinovirus
#2 - corona virus
SARS is caused by what virus
Corona virus
Corona virus
- strand
- symmetry
- enveloped/naked
Single stranded positive RNA
Helical
Enveloped
Picorna virus
- strand
- symmetry
- enveloped/naked
Positive stranded, small
Naked
Picorna virus include what viruses
Enteroviruses - Coxsackie, polio, Hep A
Rhinoviruses
Transmission for picorna virus
Fecal oral except rhino - respiratory
Enteroviruses cause enteric disease T/F
False - enteroviruses DO NOT cause enteric disease - polio, coxsackie
Describe poliovirus pathogenesis
- Binds to anterior horn cells, DRG, neurons, lymphoid cells and skeletal muscle cells - in high numbers becomes cytolytic
Name 5 different forms of polio
- Asymptomatic - 90 %
- Abortive - 5 % - mild febrile illness
- Non paralytic - mild febrile disease + progression to CNS, can cause aseptic meningitis
- Paralytic - 0.1-2 %
- Bulbar - paralysis of respiratory muscles - 75 % mortality
What kind of paralysis does polio cause
FLACCID PARALYSIS with no sensory loss
Which diseases does Coxsackie virus cause
- Herpangina - vesicular ulcerated lesions in throat and mouth - sore throat, pain on swallowing, anorexia, vomitting
- Hand, foot and mouth disease - vesicular lesions on hands, feet, mouth and tongue
Why does rhinovirus lives in nasopharynx
It likes colder temperatures
Rhabdovirus shape, strand, symmetry, naked/enveloped
BULLET shaped
Negative stranded
Enveloped
Helical
Rabies is spread through _
Animal bite - in US racoon or bat, in other countries - dogs (dogs are vaccinated in US)
Prognosis for rabies infection
Very poor - almost always fatal if not vaccinated after exposure
Describe symptoms of rabies
First incubation period - asymptomatic
In 2-10 days get fever, headache, anorexia, fatigue and GI symptoms
Neurological symptoms - HYDROPHOBIA - very afraid of water (even glass of water), hallucinations, disorientation, paralysis, confusion, delerium
Then coma, cardiac arrest and death
How do you diagnose rabies
- History of bite
- Negri bodies - cytoplasmic inclusios when study animal or at autopsy
Name filoviridae virus
EBOLA
Shape, strand, symmetry and naked/enveloped for filoviridae virus
Filamentous negative stranded RNA virus
Enveloped
Helical
Ebola virus causes what
Severe (usually fatal) hemorrhagic fever
- Endemic to Africa
Name Bunya virus
Hantavirus (Sin Nombre)
- Endemic to South West
Hantavirus is spread how
Through mice - inspiration of feces
Hantavirus causes what
Hemorrhagic destruction of the lungs and lethal pulmonary complications
- Starts with fever, flu like syndrome and painful muscle aches
Name rio virus
Rota virus - infant diarrhea
- Segmented RNA
Name main orhomyxovirus
INFLUENZA - A, B, C
Type A influenza infects _
Type B influenza infects _
Type A - animals + people
Type B - people only
Describe structure of influenza virus
- Negative stranded RNA
- Enveloped
- Segmented (8 segments)
Envelope of influenza has 2 components - what are they
- HA - hemoagglutinin
- NA - neuroaminidase
If we say Flu is H5N1 - what does that mean
H - hemoagglutinin
N - neuroaminidase
Why can Influenza (RNA virus ) have many strains while DNA viruses can only have one strain
DNA viruses have DNA polymerase which proofreads nucleic acid sequences and so prevents mutations
RNA polymerase can not proofread - and so frequent mutations occur which result in multiple strains
Antigenic shift in Influenza
Sudden and major change in the virus results in appearance of completely new virus and general population does not have Ab's against this new virus so it spreads fast and infects and kills many people
- Causes pandemics (Avian flu)
Describe mechanism of antigenic shift in influenza
- Animal gets infected with two different A viruses at the same time
- RNA in influenza is segmented so two viruses swap segments creating a completely new virus which immune system cannot recognize
Which viruses can undergo antigenic shift
ONLY type A influenza viruses - only those viruses can infect both animals and people
Antigenic drift in Influenza virus
- Slow and gradual change in proteins leads to change in strain of type A and B influenza viruses
Characteristics of flu
- Worst in elderly, best in children
- Abrupt onset of fever
- Headache but NO RUNNY NOSE
- NO VIREMIA and symptoms are confined to respiratory tract
- Makes more susceptible to bacterial infections - Staph. Aureus and Strep. Pneumonia in elderly after having flu
Paramyxovirus family includes_
Mumps
Measles
RSV - respiratory syncytium virus
Measles is spread how_
Respiratory - very contagious
Symptoms of measles
3 C's + photophobia
Corynza (running nose)
Conjunctivitis
Cough
Photophobia
Koplicks spots on buccal mucosa
Describe rash in measles
Rash starts below ears and goes down
Complications of measles
- Atypical measles - vesicular rash
- Pneumonia
- Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Measles Dx
- Giant cells
- Clinical
Parainfluenza causes _
- in adults
- in children
Adults - laryngitis, common cold
Children- croup
Main symptom of croup
Seal barking cough
Mumps - symptoms and complications
SYmptoms - bilateral swelling of lymph nodes - parotid gland inflammation
Complication - sterility
Describe herpes virus
Double stranded DNA virus
Linear
Icosahedral
Enveloped
HSV1 goes latent in _
Trigeminal ganglia
HSV2 goes latent in _
Sacral ganglia
VZV goes latent in _
Dorsal root ganglion
EBV, CMV, and HHV 6 go latent in _
White blood cells
How do you spread HSV1 and HSV2
Direct contact (HSV2 - STD)
HSV1 and HSV2 present as _
Painful blisters - itch and are very contagious
What diseases does HSV1 cause
-Primary gingivostomatitis
- Recurrent stomatitis (cold sores)
- Herpes gladiotorum
- Ocular herpes
- Encephalitis
What diseases does HSV2 cause
- Genital herpes
- Herpetic whitlow
- Encephalitis
Describe gingivostomatitis
- Mostly asymptomatic
- Can cause fever
- Vesicles that become ulcers are found in mouth, on tongue - cause gingivitis
Ocular herpes is usually spread by
Autoinoculation
Describe ocular herpes
- One of the most common reasons of corneal damage and blindness in the world
- Branching (dendritic) ulcerations
- Both cornea and conjunctiva are affected
- Recurrence causes corneal scarring
Population for HSV1 gladiatorum (HSV1 dermatitis)
Wrestlers or other contact sport players
HSV1 causes encephalitis in _
HSV 2 causes encephalitis in _
HSV1 - adults
HSV2 - neonates - through birth canal
Describe genital herpes
- HSV2
- Burning sensation in genitalia
- Perfuse watery discharge from vesicles
- Very painful ulcerations on genitalia covered with exudate
- Severe pain on urination
Population of herpetic whitlow HSV2
- Health care workers
- Waiters
- Children
HSV1 vs HSV2 encephalitis localization
HSV1 - temporal lobe
HSV2 - doesnt go to temporal lobe
VZV virus causes what diseases
- Primary - chickenpox
- Reactivation later in life - shingles
How is chickenpox spred
- Respiratory
Smallpox vs chickenpox rash
Smallpox - all lesions look the same
Chickenpox - all lesions are in different stages of development
Why should you not give aspirin to kids with chickenpox
Can get Reyes syndrome (encephalopathy + vomitting)
Complication of shingles
Post herpetic neuralgia - pain remains even after shingles has resolved
Describe rash in shingles
Similar to chickenpox but dermatomal distribution (usually unilateral)
EBV associated with what diseases
- Infectious mono
- Burkitt's lymphoma
- Lymphoproliferative disease
- Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Primary target cell for EBV
Epithelial cells in oropharynx
EBV goes latent in _
B cells
Dx of EBV
-Positive for heterophile Ab's
- Downy cells (T cells)
- Atypical lymphocytes
- Increased monocytes
2 groups of population who get mono
- Young kids (0-5 years old) - asymptomatic
- Puberty - kissing disease - more severe
Transmission of mono occurs through
Saliva (kissing or through taking same things in mouth in young children)
Infectious mono symptoms
- Cervical lymphadenopathy
- Pharyngitis
- Fever
- PROFOUND FATIGUE
- SPLENOMEGALY
Co factor for Burkitts lymphoma
Malaria - endemic in Africa
Most common viral cause of birth defects
CMV
Population at most risk for CMV infection
Pregnant women and immunocompromised
In AIDS patients CMV causes _
Interstitial pneumonia
Retinitis
Most common route of CMV transmission
Sexual
How do you distinguish CMV from EBV
CMV - heterophile Ab's negative
EBV - heterophile Ab's positive
CMV infection in fetus is also called
Mulberry muffin baby syndrome
Leading cause of mental retardation due to congenital disease in newborns
CMV
Infants born with CMV present with _
Microcephaly
Place where pregnant women most likely to get CMV
Day care centers
Describe roseola rash
- Caused by HHV 6
- First have fever, after fever is gone get rash
HHV 8 virus causes _
Kaposis sarcoma
All DNA viruses are _ stranded except
Double stranded except

PARVOVIRUS
All DNA viruses are _ in shape except _
Icosahedral except

POX
ALL DNA viruses replicate in _ except
Nucleus

POX
Name parvovirus
B19
Describe parvovirus
Single stranded DNA
Naked
Icosahedral
B19 virus is also called _
5th disease or erythema infectiosum
"slapped cheek fever"
B19 target cell
Erythroid precursors
In anemics B19 can cause
Aplastic crisis
B19 transmitted through
Oral and respiratory secretions or through placenta
B19 presentation in adults and kids
Adults - arthralgia or arthritis
Children - rash on cheeks, then spread on whole body, fever and flu like illness
In pregnant women who have B19 what can happen to fetus
Hydrops fetalis
Also can cause stillbirth
What does papovavirus cause
HPV
Common and genital warts
JC and BK viruses
Describe papovavirus
Naked
Icosahedral
Double stranded DNA
HPV causes
Laryngeal warts
Common warts
Plantar warts
Genital warts
Cervical cancer
Genital warts are also called
Condyloma accuminata
Most HPV caused by what strains
HPV6 and HPV11
Strains of HPV associated with cervical cancer
HPV 16 and HPV18
BK and JC papova viruses usually occur in
immunocompromised patients
BK virus causes
kidney problems
JC virus causes
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy - degenerative brain disease
Which virus is most commonly transmitted through contaminated swimming pool
Adenovirus
Which diseases does adenovirus cause
Pink eye
Respiratory diseases
Pharyngitis
GI
Hematuria in young boys
Which virus is common in military
Adenovirus
Pox virus causes what disease
Smallpox
Molluscum contagiosum
Monkeypox
Smallpox is spread how
Through respiratory
Has been eradicated
Possible bio weapon
Rash distribution in smallpox vs chickenpox
Chickenpox - central distribution
Smallpox - head + extremities
Monkeypox is spread how
Through prairie dogs
Orf is _
Pox virus of sheep and goats
Molluscum contagiosum - symptoms + transmission
Symptoms - cluster of nodules
Spread through direct contact - sexual or contact sports
What does Hep B use for replication
Reverse transcriptase and RNA intermediate
Hep B complication
Primary hepatocarcinoma
Viropexis
Receptor mediated endocytosis
Which virus has its own DNA polymerase
Herpes