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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What pH do bacteria prefer
Bacteria prefer neutral pH - can be killed at low pH like stomach acid
Aerobes, microaerophiles and facultative anaerobes have two enzymes that detoxify oxygen - what are they?
SOD (super oxide dismutase) and catalase
Classification of organisms according to their O2 requirement
-Obligate aerobes - require oxygen
-Facultative anaerobes - grow best with O2 but can survive without
-Microaerophiles - likes low O2 concentration
-Aerotolerant - grow without O2 but are not killed by it
-Obligate anaerobes - cant grow in presense of O2
Microaerophiles are gram _
Organism that will grow with enriched carbon dioxide
Catabolism vs anabolism
Catabolism - degradation to generate energy and reducing power
Anabolism - building - biosynthesis, polymerization and assembly
Chemotrophic metabolism
-Energy from chemicals - all pathogens degrade organic compounds to produce energy in form of ATP
Fastidious organisms
-Require numerous supplements and can be cultured on only special media such as blood or chocolate agar
Requirements for growth of bacteria
C - Carbon
H - Hydrogen
O- oxygen
M - magnesium
P - phosphorus
K - potassium
I- iron
N - nitrogen
S- sulfur
Lag phase
Time when bacteria are adjusting to new environment, some synthesis occurs
Log phase
-Time when bacteria grow fastest
-Exponential growth
-Also most sensitive to antibiotics during this phase
Stationary phase
Number of growing cells = number of dead cells
Decline phase
Period when cells start to decrease in number
Normal flora
Bacteria that normally inhibit the body - nonpathogenic, some produce vitamin K (enterobacteria) - may be resident or transient
Presence of organisms in the body, may or may not have clinical symptoms
Clinical manifestation of infection
Organism's capacity to cause infection
Degree of pathogenecity
Number of severe cases/ total number of cases
Virulence factor
-Affects whether organism will cause infection and how severe it will be
-Can be attachment, survival, escaping immune system
How frequently agent is transmitted to susceptible person
-# of new cases within specified time
-# of cases/# of susceptible people
Total # of cases in population at given time
-cross sectional