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94 Cards in this Set

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acellular vaccines
a vaccine preparation that contains specific antigens such as the capsule or toxin from a pathogen and not the whole microbe. Acellular (without a cell).
acute infection
Characterized by rapid onset and short duration.
aerosol
Suspensions of fine dust or moisture particles in the air that contain live pathogens.
agglutination
The aggregation by antibodies of suspended cells or similar-size particles (agglutinogens) into clumps that settle.
agranular leukocyte
A type of white blood cell, including lymphocytes and monocytes, characterized by the absence of cytoplasmic granules and by a relatively large spherical or indented nucleus.
anamnestic response
In immunology, an augmented response or memory related to a prior stimulation of the immune system by antigen. It boosts the levels of immune substances.
antibiotic
A chemical substance from one microorganism that can inhibit or kill another microbe even in minute amounts.
antibody
A large protein molecule evoked in response to an antigen that interacts specifically with that antigen.
antigen
Any cell, particle, or chemical that induces a specific immune response by B cells or T cells and can stimulate resistance to an infection or a toxin.
biological vector
An animal that not only transports an infectious agent but plays a role in the life cycle of the pathogen, serving as a site in which it can multiply or complete its life cycle. It is usually an alternate host to the pathogen.
broad spectrum antibiotic
Denotes drugs that have an effect on a wide variety of microorganisms.
calor
The bodily heat indicating an inflammation.
CDC
center for disease control and prevention
chemotaxis
The tendency of organisms to move in response to a chemical gradient (toward an attractant or to avoid adverse stimuli).
chemotherapy
The use of chemical substances or drugs to treat or prevent disease.
coagulase
A plasma-clotting enzyme secreted by Staphylococcus aureus. It contributes to virulence and is involved in forming a fibrin wall that surrounds staphylococcal lesions.
competitive inhibition
Control process that relies on the ability of metabolic analogs to control microbial growth by successfully competing with a necessary enzyme to halt the growth of bacterial cells.
complement fixation
In immunology, serum protein components that act in a definite sequence when set in motion either by an antigen-antibody complex or by factors of the alternative (properdin) pathway.
diapedesis
The migration of intact blood cells between endothelial cells of a blood vessel such as a venule.
direct transmission
a transmission mechanism in which the infectious agent is transferred directly into the body via touching or biting or kissing or sexual intercourse or by droplets entering the eye or nose or mouth
exotoxins
A toxin (usually protein) that is secreted and acts upon a specific cellular target. Examples: botulin, tetanospasmin, diphtheria toxin, and erythrogenic toxin.
droplet nuclei
The dried residue of fine droplets produced by mucus and saliva sprayed while sneezing and coughing. Droplet nuclei are less than 5 μm in diameter (large enough to bear a single bacterium and small enough to remain airborne for a long time) and can be carried by air currents. Droplet nuclei are drawn deep into the air passages.
edema
The accumulation of excess fluid in cells, tissues, or serous cavities. Also called swelling.
endemic
A native disease that prevails continuously in a geographic region.
edogenous infection
Originating or produced within an organism or one of its parts.
endotoxins
A bacterial toxin that is not ordinarily released (as is exotoxin). Endotoxin is composed of a phospholipid-polysaccharide complex that is an integral part of gram-negative bacterial cell walls. Endotoxins can cause severe shock and fever.
epidemic
A sudden and simultaneous outbreak or increase in the number of cases of disease in a community.
epidemiology
The study of the factors affecting the prevalence and spread of disease within a community.
epitope
The precise molecular group of an antigen that defines its specificity and triggers the immune response.
exoenzymes
An extracellular enzyme chiefly for hydrolysis of nutrient macromolecules that are otherwise impervious to the cell membrane. It functions in saprobic decomposition of organic debris and can be a factor in invasiveness of pathogens.
fomite
Virtually any inanimate object an infected individual has contact with that can serve as a vehicle for the spread of disease.
granular leukocyte
A mature leukocyte that contains noticeable granules in a Wright stain. Examples: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
hapten
An incomplete or partial antigen. Although it constitutes the determinative group and can bind antigen, hapten cannot stimulate a full immune response without being carried by a larger protein molecule.
helper T cells
A class of thymus-stimulated lymphocytes that facilitate various immune activities such as assisting B cells and macrophages. Also called a T helper cell.
hemopoiesis
The process by which the various types of blood cells are formed, such as in the bone marrow.
HLA
An abbreviation for human leukocyte antigens. This closely linked cluster of genes programs for cell surface glycoproteins that control immune interactions between cells and is involved in rejection of allografts. Also called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).
horizontal transmission
transmission of genetic material from one cell to another through non-reproductive mechanisms; i.e., from one organism to another living in the same habitat.
humoral
Pertaining to elements in the blood or other body fluids.
hyaluronidase
An enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of hyaluronic acid in the body, thereby increasing tissue permeability to fluids
immunology
The study of the system of body defenses that protect against infection.
incidence rate
In epidemiology, the number of new cases of a disease occurring during a period.
incubation period
The period from the initial contact with an infectious agent to the appearance of the first symptoms.
indirect transmission
a transmission mechanism in which the infectious agent is transferred to the person by a fomite of vector
infection
The entry, establishment, and multiplication of pathogenic organisms within a host.
inflammation
A natural, nonspecific response to tissue injury that protects the host from further damage. It stimulates immune reactivity and blocks the spread of an infectious agent.
intoxication
Poisoning that results from the introduction of a toxin into body tissues through ingestion or injection.
keritinase
Any of various enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of keratin.
live attenuated vaccine
a vaccine prepared from live microorganisms or functional viruses whose disease-producing ability has been weakened but whose immunogenic properties have not
local infection
Occurs when a microbe enters a specific tissue, infects it, and remains confined there.
lysozyme
A cytoplasmic organelle containing lysozyme and other hydrolytic enzymes.
mechanical vector
An animal that transports an infectious agent but is not infected by it, such as houseflies whose feet become contaminated with feces.
MHC (class 1 and 2)
Major histocompatibility complex.
MIC
Abbreviation for minimum inhibitory concentration. The lowest concentration of antibiotic needed to inhibit bacterial growth in a test system.
microbial antagonist
Relationship in which microorganisms compete for survival in a common environment by taking actions that inhibit or destroy another organism.
mixed infection
Occurs when several different pathogens interact simultaneously to produce an infection. Also called a synergistic infection.
morbidity
The number of persons afflicted with an illness under question or with illness in general, expressed as a numerator, with the denominator being some unit of population (as in x/100,000).
A diseased condition.
mortality
The number of persons who have died as the result of a particular cause or due to all causes, expressed as a numerator, with the denominator being some unit of population (as in x/100,000).
narrow spectrum antibiotic
Denotes drugs that are selective and limited in their effects. For example, they inhibit either gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria but not both.
natural passive immunity
A passive immunity acquired by the fetus or newborn from the mother via the placental transfer of antibodies during pregnancy and via breast milk. This type of immunity is short-lived, lasting the first six months of the newborn's life.
nephrotoxin
A cytotoxin specific for cells of the kidney.
neutralization
The process of combining an acid and a base until they reach a balanced proportion, with a pH value close to 7.
non-specific defenses
Nonspecific defenses include physical and chemical barriers, the inflammatory response, and interferons. Physical barriers include the intact skin and mucous membranes. These barriers are aided by various antimicrobial chemicals in tissue and fluids. An example of such a substance is lysozyme, an enzyme present in tears that destroys the cell membranes of certain bacteria.
nosocomial infection
An infection not present upon admission to a hospital but incurred while being treated there.
opportunistic pathogen
In infection, ordinarily nonpathogenic or weakly pathogenic microbes that cause disease primarily in an immunologically compromised host.
opsonization
The process of stimulating phagocytosis by affixing molecules (opsonins such as antibodies and complement) to the surfaces of foreign cells or particles.
pandemic
A disease afflicting an increased proportion of the population over a wide geographic area (often worldwide).
pathology
The structural and physiological effects of disease on the body.
penicillinase
An enzyme that hydrolyzes penicillin; found in penicillin-resistant strains of bacteria.
plasma cells
A progeny of an activated B cell that actively produces and secretes antibodies.
prevalence
The total number of cases of a disease in a certain area and time period.
probiotic
Preparations of live microbes used as a preventive or therapeutic measure to displace or compete with potential pathogens.
prophylactic
Any device, method, or substance used to prevent disease.
pyrogen
A substance that causes a rise in body temperature. It can come from pyrogenic microorganisms or from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (endogenous pyrogens).
sequelae
A morbid complication that follows a disease.
reservoirs
In disease communication, the natural host or habitat of a pathogen.
resident bacteria
The deeper, more stable microbiota that inhabit the skin and exposed mucous membranes, as opposed to the superficial, variable, transient population.
rubor
a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat
secondary infection
An infection that compounds a preexisting one.
selective toxicity
Property of an antimicrobial agent to be highly toxic against its target microbe while being far less toxic to other cells, particularly those of the host organism.
septicemia
Systemic infection associated with microorganisms multiplying in circulating blood.
sign
Any abnormality uncovered upon physical diagnosis that indicates the presence of disease. A sign is an objective assessment of disease, as opposed to a symptom, which is the subjective assessment perceived by the patient.
specific defenses
specific against a particular antigen. An antibody is an example of a specific defense.
sporadic
Description of a disease that exhibits new cases at irregular intervals in unpredictable geographic locales.
STORCH
Acronym for common infections of the fetus and neonate. Storch stands for syphilis, toxoplasmosis, other diseases (hepatitis B, AIDS, and chlamydiosis), rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus.
superinfection
An infection occurring during antimicrobial therapy that is caused by an overgrowth of drug-resistant microorganisms.
symptom
The subjective evidence of infection and disease as perceived by the patient.
syndrome
The collection of signs and symptoms that, taken together, paint a portrait of the disease.
toxemia
Condition in which a toxin (microbial or otherwise) is spread throughout the bloodstream.
toxinosis
Disease whose adverse effects are primarily due to the production and release of toxins.
tumor
A swelling of a part of the body, generally without inflammation, caused by an abnormal growth of tissue, whether benign or malignant.
variable region
The antigen binding fragment of an immunoglobulin molecule, consisting of a combination of heavy and light chains whose molecular conformation is specific for the antigen.
vector
An animal that transmits infectious agents from one host to another, usually a biting or piercing arthropod like the tick, mosquito, or fly. Infectious agents can be conveyed mechanically by simple contact or biologically whereby the parasite develops in the vector. A genetic element such as a plasmid or a bacteriophage used to introduce genetic material into a cloning host during recombinant DNA experiments.
vertical transmission
Transmission of a virus by means of the genetic apparatus of a cell in which the viral genome is integrated.
zoonotic pathogen
An infectious disease indigenous to animals that humans can acquire through direct or indirect contact with infected animals.