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144 Cards in this Set

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pharmakeutikos
Greek word meaning "the practice of witchcraft"
Now, pharmaceuticals
Ancient axiom: Some remedies are ___ than the disease.
worse
Robert Koch
germ theory of infection
Paul Ehrlich
responsible for 1st theoretical concepts of chemotherapy in late 1800's
Gerhard Domagk
1930's discoveries that the red dye prontosil was chemically changed by the body into sulfonamide, with specific activity against bacteria
sulfonamide
1st sulfa drug
Sir Alexander Fleming
father of modern antibiotics
______ discovered penicillin.
Sir Alexander Fleming
In Fleming's 1928 lab, penicillin was discovered to inhibit ______ when a plate became contaminated with the mold _____.
S. aureus
Penicillium notatum
Howard Florey and Ernest Chain
English chemists who developed methods for industrial production of penicillin to help in the war effort
Clinical trials in ___ proved penicillin's effectiveness and cultures were brought to the U.S. for even larger scale production.
1941
2 causes of drug resistance
1. extreme overuse of the drug
2. misunderstanding of drug capabilities
How long does it take for a drug to go from discovery to therapy?
10-25 yrs
It costs _____ of dollars to take a drug through pipeline from discovery to therapy.
billions
antibiotics
products of the fermentation pathways that occur in many bacteria and fungi
3 ways researchers facilitate nature in production of antibiotics
1. select mutant species that yield more abundant/useful products
2. varying growth medium
3. altering procedure for large-scale industrial production
designer drug
drug produced through chemical manipulation of molecules by adding/removing functional (R) groups
semisynthetic method of drug production
process where natural product of a microorganism is joined with various preselected functional (R) groups
3 synthetic penicillins
1. methicillin
2. ampicillin
3. penicillin V
3 enhancements made through synthetic drug production
1. resistance to penicillinase (methicillin)
2. confer broader activity spectrum (ampicillin)
3. make product acid-resistant (penicillin V)
What's the "nucleus" of penicillin?
aminopenicillanic acid
3 antibiotics of which there are semisynthetic versions
1. penicillin
2. cephalosporins
3. tetracyclines
antibiotic nucleus
its basic molecular framework
________ is a fermentation product of P. chrysogenum
penicillin G
__% of hospital infections are caused by _________ microbes.
60
drug-resistant
Thousands of patients die annually in the US from infections that lack ______.
effective drugs
4 types of bacteria known to be drug-resistant
1. tuberculosis
2. staphylococci
3. Gonococci
4. Salmonella
MRSA
methicillin-resistant S. aureus
_______ used to treat MRSA
vancomycin
VISA
vancomycin intermediate S. aureus (reduced sensitivity to vancomycin)
VRSA
vancomycin-resistant S. aureus
MRSA
methicillin-resistant S. aureus
______ is used to treat MRSA.
vancomycin
VISA
vancomycin intermediate S. aureus (reduced sensitivity)
first seen 1996
VRSA
vancomycin-resistant S. aureus
first seen 2002
How are drug-resistant bacterial infections treated?
Using other drugs, in combination, with the idea that it's unlikely that a bacteria is simultaneously resistant to multiple drugs "1-2 punch"
Why are antimicrobials added to animal feed?
to decrease infections and improve animal size and health
How does animal feed result in drug-resistant infections in humans?
Enteric bacteria normally living in animal intestines share resistance plasmids. The pathogens then jump to humans, causing drug-resistant infections, often in epidemic proportions
4 long-term ways to combat occurrence of drug-resistant bacteria
1. reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics
2. stop putting antibiotics in animal feed
3. increase use of vaccines
4. promote effective therapy in low-income populations
Global travel and globalization of food products result in _____.
rapid export of drug-resistant bacteria from developing countries
In general, the majority of infectious diseases, whether bacterial, fungal, protozoan, or viral, are showing ___________.
increased drug resistance
The clinical setting is a _________ of drug-resistant strains of bacteria.
prolific source
2 reasons why clinical setting is full of drug-resistant bacteria
1. pathogens are continually exposed to a variety of drugs
2. hospitals maintain patients with weakened immunity, making them highly susceptible to these pathogens
To limit drug-resistance, physicians must do what 2 things?
1. make accurate diagnoses
2. prescribe correct drug
How can patients limit drug-resistance?
by following physician's orders for taking meds (dosage, route of administration, and period of time), ensures elimination of the pathogen
Of microbial forms, _______ have the highest resistance to physical and chemical controls.
bacterial endospores
sterilization
process that destroys all microorganisms and microbial forms, including bacterial endospores
disinfection
use of physical/chemical process to destroy vegetative pathogens
________ are the easiest microbial forms to kill/inhibit.
vegetative bacteria/viruses
common hospital pathogen that can grow abundantly in soap dishes
Pseudomonas
Dry heat is more/less efficient than moist heat.
less
T/F: Prions are very resistant to heat, chemicals, radiation, and do not elicit antibody formation in host.
true
minimum sterilizing conditions in steam autoclave
121°C at 15 psi for 15 minutes
disinfection of beverages such as apple juice, milk, and wine is optimally achieved by _______.
pasteurization
4 ways microbes were controlled in ancient times
the 4 b's
1. boiled drinking water
2. buried waste
3.burned aromatic woods in houses of the sick
4. covered bodies with oil, herbs, strong perfumes, vinegar
3 types of methods used to destroy/reduce microbes
1. physical agents
2. chemical agents
3. mechanical removal
2 types physical agents used to control microbes
1. heat
2. radiation
2 ways chemicals are used to control microbes
1. disinfection (inanimate objects)
2. antiseptics (body surfaces)
Microbes are mechanically removed through the process of _______ of air/liquid.
filtration
sterilization
destroys ALL viable microbes, including viruses and endospores
disinfection
destroys vegetative pathogens, NOT endospores (on inanimate objects)
antiseptic
disinfectant applied directly to body surfaces
sanitation
cleansing technique that mechanically removes microbes
degermination
reduce microbial load through mechanical means such as
1. surgical hand scrub application of alcohol wipes
2. cleaning wound with antimicrobial soap
microbial death
permanent loss of reproductive activity, even under optimal growth conditions
6 factors affecting microbial death rate
1. # of microbes (higher load takes longer to kill)
2. nature of microbes (target population is mixture of bacteria, fungi, spores, and viruses)
3. temperature and pH of environment
4. concentration (dosage/intensity) of agent
5. mode of action of agent
6. presence of solvents, interfering with/inhibiting actions of disinfectants, and even heat
7 methods of physically controlling microbes
1. heat (moist and dry)
2. Tyndallization
3. boil water
4. pasteurization
5. cold treatment
6. desiccation
7. radiation
microbicidal
deadly to microbes
microbistatic
maintains status quo of microbial load
Temperature above maximal growth temperature is ________, whereas temps below minimal growth temp are _________.
microbicidal
microbistatic
Moist heat is more ______ and requires less ____ than dry heat in the control of microbes.
effective
time
Moist heat coagulates and denatures ______.
proteins
Dry heat requires more _____ and higher ______ than moist heat in the control of microbes.
time
temperature
Incineration is the most ______ of all heat transactions.
rigorous
Furnaces/incinerators operate at temps from ______ to ______ C.
800
6500
Incineration reduces microbes and other substances to _____ and _____.
ashes
gas
When is dry oven used to control microbes?
used on heat-resistant lab/clinic items that don't sterilize well with moist heat (ex. oil, metallic instruments that rust, powders)
dry oven cycle
12 mins. to 4 hrs./150 - 180°C
autoclave cycle
15 psi/121°C/10-40 mins.
Autoclave uses _______ to ______ items.
pressurized steam
sterilize
mode of action for moist heat
denatures protein, destroys membrane and DNA
Tyndallization
intermittent sterilization for substances that can't withstand autoclave
Tyndallization cycle
free-flowing steam exposure for 30-60 mins./incubate for 23-24 hrs./ then subject to steam again
repeat cycle for 3 days
Does Tyndallization sterilize?
No, but does disinfect.
2 examples of Tyndallization
1. canned foods
2. lab media containing sera, egg, or carbs (which break down @ high temp)
water boiling cycle
boil @ 100°C/30 mins.
Boiling water destroys ______ and ______.
non-spore-forming pathogens
staphylococci
In pasteurization, heat is applied to kill ______ without destroying food _________.
potential agents of infection and spoilage
flavor or value
batch method of pasteurization
63 - 66°C/30 mins.
flash method of pasteurization
71.6°C/15 sec.
Pasteurization kills ______ pathogens and _____ overall microbial count.
non-spore-forming
lowers
The flash method of pasteurization destroys the _____ stages of _____% of bacteria & fungi.
vegetative
97-99
Flash pasteurization does not kill _______ and _______ microbes such as non-pathogenic lactobacilli, micrococci & yeast.
endospores
thermoduric
UHT pasteurization cycle
134°C/1-2 sec.
flash method pasteurized milk yields _____ microbes/mL, whereas UHT pasteurization yields ______ milk.
20k
sterile
Organic milk is treated by _____ pasteurization - hence, the longer shelf life.
UHT (ultra high temp)
The principal benefit of treating microbes with cold is to slow _____ during food ____________.
microbial growth rate
processing & storage
2 types of cold treatment
1. refrigeration (4°C)
2. freezing (below 0°C)
cold treatment preserves what 3 things
1. food
2. media
3. cultures
desiccation
gradual removal of water from cells which leads to microbial inhibition
Desiccation is/is not effective in microbial control.
is not
Many microbes retain the ability to grow once water is _______.
reintroduced
lyophilization
freeze-drying, preservation
2 types radiation
1. ionizing
2. non-ionizing
Ionizing radiation _____ DNA.
breaks
Non-ionizing radiation ______ chemical structure.
changes
Ionizing radiation ______ Vitamin B1 (thiamine) in meats.
reduces the amount of
_____ relies on irradiated meats for its astronauts.
NASA
Ionizing radiation is approved by FDA for the reduction of _____ and ______.
E. coli
salmonella
Ionizing radiation may be used to sterilize ________.
medical instruments
Non-ionizing radiation is known as __ radiation.
UV
Non-ionizing radiation has little/great penetrating power.
little
UV light creates ______ which interfere with ________.
thymine dimers
replication
3 antimicrobial agents that attack cell wall
1. Penicillin
2. Detergents
3. Alcohol
Antimicrobial agent that attacks cell membrane
Detergent surfactant
3 antimicrobial agents that prevent transcription & replication
1. Radiation
2. Formaldehyde
3. Ethylene oxide
4 antimicrobial agents that interfere with ribosome to prevent translation and disrupt/denature proteins
1. Alcohols
2. Phenols
3. Acid
4. Heat
2 microbes with highest resistance
1. Prions
2. Bacterial endospores
Prions are very resistant to ------, ------, and ----, and do not elicit -------- in host.
Chemicals, radiation, heat
Antibody formation
4 microbes moderately resistant
1. Pseudomonas
2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
3. Staphylococcus aureus
4. Protozoan cysts
5 microbes with least resistance
1. Bacterial vegetative cells
2. Fungi
3. Yeast
4. Enveloped viruses
5. Protozoan trophozoites
Lymphatics
Network of valves vessels carrying lymph from capillaries to superior vena cava
Lymphatic fluid constitutes about ---% of all vascular fluid.
10
Lymph nodes
Filter lymph
2 glands of immune system
1. Spleen
2. Thymus
3 cell types in lymph
1. WBC
2. Lymphocytes
3. Macrophages
2 types of lymphocytes in lymph
1. B cells
2. T cells
Macrophage
Captures & degrades bacteria, viruses, and cellular debris
3 things attacked by the immune response
1. Pathogens
2. Cancer cells
3. Transplanted cells
T cells present ---- and give signal to ---- to produce -----.
Antigens
B cells
Antibodies
5 types of immunopathology
1. Immediate
2. Autoimmunity
3. Immune complex
4. Immunodeficiency
5. Cancer
Hypersensitivity
Overreaction to antigens
Allergy results in ---------.
Inflammation
Type I, II, And III hyper sensitivities involve ------------.
B cell immunoglobulin response
Type IV hypersensitivity involves -------.
T cell response
Type I allergic reaction has ------- onset in response to a specific -----.
Immediate
Antigen
Type I - 2 levels of severity
1. Atopy
2. Anaphylaxis
Atopy
Any chronic local allergy i.e. hay fever, asthma
Anaphylaxis involves ------ and ------.
Airway obstruction
Circulatory collapse
Allergic persons exhibit -------------.
A combo of syndromes - hay fever, skin itching, asthma
4 treatments for Type I hypersensitivity
1. Corticosteroid
2. Monoclonal antibodies
3. Blocking mast cell receptors
4. Antihistamines
Type II hypersensitivity occurs within -------.
Hours
3 examples of Type II hypersensitivity
1. Complement-assisted destruction
2. Transfusion reactions
3. Organ donations
Type III hypersensitivities
Reaction of soluble antigen with antibody and deposition of resulting complexes in basement membranes of epithelial tissue