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129 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A positive catalase test indicates which Gram positive cocci?
Stapylococcus
You have a positive catlase test indicating Stapylococcus so the next test you run is__________, which uses ___________ and a positive result is indicated by _________
Coagulase
Rabbit plasma
clotting of the plasma
A positive coagulase test indicates ___________________ and 3 types of this are:
pathogenic staphylococcus
~Staph. aureus
~Staph intermedius
~Staph hyicus
A negative coagulase test indicates ______ and 2 types are ________
non-pathogenic
~Staph. epidermis
~micrococcus
Name the 3 types of pathogenic Staph:
Staph aureus
Staph. intermedius
Staph hyicus
True or false

Most bacteria are facultative anaerobes
true
Name 2 types of non-pathogenic Staph:
Staph. epidermis
Micrococcus
You have a negative catalase test, which indicates what type of GPCOC?
Streptococcus
When you have identified that you have a type of Streptococcus after doing a catalase test, what is typically your next step?
Inoculate a BAP to test for type of hemolysis
With Streptococcus, Beta hemolysis is indicative of ___________ and the 6 types are:
Pathogenic bacteria
~Strep. pyogenes (Lancefield group A)
~Strep agalactiae (Lancefield group B)
~Strep. dysgalactiae (variable hemolysis)
~Strep equi (Lancefield group C)
~Strep zooepidemicus
~Strep canis
With Streptococcus, Alpha hemolysis is indicative of what 4 types of bacteria?
~Strep. pneumoniae
~Strep. suis
~Strep bovis
~Strep equinus
With Streptococcus, Gamma Hemolysis is indicative of what 2 types of bacteria?
~Strep. faecalis
~Strep. uberis
What are 3 shapes of GPRODS?
Small rods
Large rods
coccobaccillus
To ID GPRODs, one type of test used is the H2S test which uses a _______ and a positive test result is _________
KIA agar slant
black pigment along stab line
To ID GPRODs, one type of test used is the Motility test which uses MIO motility media and a positive test result is indicated by ___________
media being cloudy throughout
To ID GPRODs, another test used for ID is the Urease test on a Urea agar slant and a positive result is indicated by ______ and a delayed positive is indicated by ______________
hot pink agar
pale pink
In addition to the Catalase, H2S, Motility and Urease tests, what are 2 other things that can help ID Genus and Species of bacteria being tested?
Origin of sample
colony morphology
Streptococcus grows in _________ and is a __________ bacteria found in MM of ____________.
twisted chains and pairs
normal flora
genital, GI and respiratory tracts
Streptococcus is a normal flora ___________bacteria that can be ___________ and causes ______ infections
facultative
pathogenic
pyogenic
Streptococcus pyogenes causes _____, belongs to Lancefield group _______ and is __________hemolytic.
strep throat
A
Beta
Strep agalactiae Group B is confirmed using what test?
The CAMP test
The CAMP test involves the unknown Beta Strep being streaked on a BAP plate perpendicular to Staph aureus. A positive result is indicated by _________
beta hemolysis around both streak lines with ARROWS at the juncture of the 2 streak lines
Strep agalactiae belongs to Lancefield group_______ , is a ______ hemolytic and is a leading cause of ___________ and women are NF cervical carriers.
B
Beta
Bovine mastitis
Strep equi belongs to Lancefield group _____, is a _______hemolytic and is what causes ___________, a very contagious _____ that involves enlarged lymph nodes which leads to dyspnea. A Bacterin is used __________
C
Beta
Equine Strangles
URI
only during outbreaks
Strep. dysgalactiae belongs to Lancefield group ____, is a _____ hemolytic and is a minor cause of________
C
Beta
bovine mastitis
Strep equi subspecies zooepidemicus belongs to Lancefield group ____ and is a ________ hemolytic that affects a wide variety of animals and is seen in ____________.
C
Beta
wound & genital infections, mastitis
Strep equi subspecies zooepidemicus is becoming more common in shelter dogs and causes ___________
acute canine respiratory disease with cough, fever and lung hemorrhage
Strep canis is a ___________ hemolytic and is seen in _________
Beta
UG infections and cystitis
skin, wound and ear infections
The most numerous bacteria in oral cavity are:
Streptococcus Alpha hemolytic bacteria
Strep. pneumoniae is an ___________ hemolytic without a Lancefield group classification. This is a leading cause of _____________in ____________
Alpha
primates (Pneumococcal variety), humans (Bacterial)
guinea pigs
rarely causes it in dogs
Strep pneumoniae is __________ resistant, has an ________course and mortality is __________
very antibiotic
acute
high
Strep suis is an __________ hemolytic that is __________for young pigs that causes meningitis, septicemia and arthritis.
Alpha
pathogenic
Enterococcus faecalis is a ________ hemolytic and a _________that is important for people because it is a leading cause of _______ but is also a common in _______ and tends to be antibiotic resistant.
Gamma
NF bacteria in the GI tract
nosocomial infections
opportunistic infections
Staphylococcus tends to be antibiotic resistant due to the actions of this enzyme _________________
Beta lactamase
Beta lactamase is an enzyme that destroys penicillin like antibiotics but we have _____________
drugs that inactivate this enzyme
Staphylococcus are bacteria that grow in __________,and are ____________ that are resistant to drying, disinfectants and antibiotics.
clusters
facultative anaerobes AND Aerobes
Staphylococcus are a NF species but become __________ causing _______ due to an enzyme that facilitates attachment to skin and MM's (tissue invasion.
pathogenic
pyogenic infections
Name the 3 Staphylococcus Coagulase positive bacteria
Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus intermedius
Staphylococcus hyicus
Staph aureus,is a ________ hemolytic that causes a ______Coagulase test and is _________ for humans and many animals.
Beta (double zone)
positive
pathogenic
Staph aureus causes a wide variety of infections and is a leading cause of _____________. Commonly caused infections include _______________ as well as food poisoning.
bovine mastitis
surgical, wound and skin infections
GU infections and Osteomyelitis in open fractures
Staph. intermedius is a newer species similar to Staph aureus and is the most common species of staph from _____, is a __________ hemolytic.
dogs
beta (Double zone)
Staph intermedius is a common cause of __________
mastitis, would, skin and surgical site infections, GU tract, arthritis and bacteremia
MRSA stand for
Methicillin
Resistant
Staphlococcus
Aureus
MRSI stands for
Methicillin
Resistant
Staphylococcus
Intermedius
Stapholococcus hyicus is a catalase and coagulase positive bacteria that is usually _______ hemolytic and is known for causing ___________ pig disease
Gamma
greasy
Greasy pig disease is also called __________ and is more common in __________ and is highly contagious skin disease that involves yellowish crusts on snout, ears and head.
Exudative Epidermitis
piglets
Name the 2 coagulase negative Staphylococcus non-pathogenic species
Staph. epidermis- NF on skin but can cause opportunistic infections

Micrococcus
Two types of anaerobic GPCOC are
peptococcus
peptostreptococcus

**are NF of alimentary tract, important in mixed infections, abscesses and effusions
GPRODS have 3 types that this class is studying. What are they?
Small rods
Large rods
branching--a higher evolutionary form that are fungi like, branching and filimentous
Small GPRODS are more important in _________
large animal
What are the 5 Genus classifications for SMALL GPRODS?
Corynebacterium
Listeria
Erysipelothrix
Arcanobacterium
Rodococcus
What are the 2 Genus classifications for Large GPRODS?
Bacillus (aerobic)
Clostridium (anaerobic)
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, a small GPROD, is also know as what in sheep ______ and in horses it is known as _______
CLA- Caseous Lymphadenitis in sheep

Pigeon fever in horses -Ulcerative lymphangitis
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is acquired by sheep through
wounds from shearing, castration, dehorning and tail docking
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the club shaped rods bacteria that are also known for looking like ______
chinese letters
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is acquired by horses and mules through ___________
puncture wounds
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis pathology involves the bacteria spreading via the ______.
lymphatics
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in sheep cause the lymph nodes to become huge and then _________ and possibly ulcerate.
abscess w/caseous pus
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in horses spreads to lymph nodes but can cause ________ as well as lameness and the characteristic _________
abscess anywhere

lameness

edema in the pectoral muscles
Treatment for Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is difficult, especially in herds. ____________ abscesses make treatment difficult and __________ is often required and isolation is recommended due to the pus being highly infectious. Herd culling is often needed.
Walled off
surgical excision with a suture drain
Prevention of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis involves immunization with _______ that is used _________ and control of flies is important due to their being a mechanical vector.
Bactrin
only during outbreaks
Corynebacterium renale have _______ that faciliatate attachment to the MM of ___________
pili
GU tract
Corynebacterium renale cuases disease in ___________
cattle and sheep
In cattle, Corynebacterium renale causes ______________
bovine pyelonephritis, cystitis
In sheep, Corynebacterium renale causes
bacterial balanopothitis--> "pizzle rot"

and vulvulitis
Corynebacterium renale causes pyelonephritis and cystitis which involves an ______________ and often involves _______ which leads to the characteristic bloody purulent urine.
ascending pyogenic infection of urinary tract

hemorrhagic necrosis and ulceration of MM lining urinary tract
Corynebacterium renale is seen more often in sheep on high protein diets which _________, which leads to urine__________
alters urine ph
scalding of skin and MM of external genitalia, which predisposes skin to infection
Listeria monocytogenes is a small GPROD that is motile, found in feces, soil, water, milk, straw and silage that is a common cause of ___________, has one form in people and _____ forms in animals.
food

2
In people, Listeria monocytogenes takes one form known as ________, which is a cause of food poisoning with V/D as well as meningitis in ________
Listeriosis

immunocompromised people
In animals, Listeria monocytogenes takes 2 forms. What are they?
Visceral form and Neural form
In Listeria monocytogenes, the Visceral form is more common in ______ and causes widely disseminated ____________ on internal organs.
monogastric animals, though rare in dogs, common in rabbits, chinchillas, GP
abscesses
In Listeria monocytogenes, the Neural form is more common in _________ and is commonly called "________" due to its affects on the _______ and is usually fatal.
ruminants, esp. cattle and sheep
circling disease
CNS with unilateral ataxia
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathie, a small GPROD, is resistant to drying and can survive for long periods in water, soil and food. The reservoir for this bacteria is ____________
in the NF of the throat, mouth of swine and fish slime
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathie is pathogenic for ____________
pigs, birds (esp. turkeys) fish, marine mammals and people
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathie in people causes what in people?
Fish Handlers Disease
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathie in pigs causes what disease and what age is most susceptible?
Swine erysipelas
3-18 month old piglets are most susceptible
The Swine erysipelas form of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathie has 4 forms. What are they?
~Skin form -most common
~Arthritic - older pigs
~Acute - septicemia, high fever, typically fatal
~Cardiac-endocarditis, usually fatal
**immunization available
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathie in the skin form of Swine erysipelas typically looks like ______, where it gets its name ____________
red to purple skin patches in a diamond/ square shape

"Diamond Skin Disease"
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathie in marine mammals and fish typically is seen with ____________
skin lesions and septicemia
Arcaneobacterium pyogenes is a small GPROD that affects ruminants and gains entrance through ______ and causes ___________ in wounds, surgical infections, mastitis, pneumonia and umbilical infections.
wounds

pyogenic infections
Rhodococcus equi is a small GPROD that causes ________ in foals, who are most susceptible at ______ months of age.
bronchopneumonia, a superative abscessing pneumonia with large abscesses within the lungs
1-6
Foals with Rhodococcus equi infections typically show symptoms of ________ and have a high mortality rate.
dyspnea, fever, anorexia, rales
Bacillus is a LARGE GPROD, of which there are many species, is common in the enviroment and is a (AEROBIC/ANAEROBIC/FACULTATIVE ??) bacteria that may be found as a common contaminant on culture plates.
aerobic
Bacillus anthracis, a LARGE GPROD is called __________, which is an obligate pathogen for animals and people.
Anthrax
Bacillus anthracis tends to affect________
People, horses, cattle, pigs, dogs but rarely cats
Bacillus anthracis is typically fatal to large animals and people if __________ but can be acquired through ________, which is less fatal in most cases
inhaled

skin penetration and ingestion
Once Bacillus anthracis is in the body, the bacteria produce an EXOTOXIN that affects________
CNS and CVS
The EXOTOXIC effects of Bacillus anthracis are:
~Damage to blood vessels causing cell and tissue death
~Fever and convulsions
~Edema-death due to suffocation from laryngeal edema
~Die quickly, usually w/in 24hrs
~May remain asymptomatic up until a few hours before death
The postmortem characteristics of Bacillus anthracis are:
bleeding out of orifices
blood will not clot
lack of rigor mortis
What are the three forms of Bacillus anthracis?
1. Cutaneous
2. Pulmonary
3. GI
The cutaneous form of Bacillus anthracis is the least dangerous form that enters through a wound and in people is called " _________"
Wool Sorters disease
The pulmonary form of Bacillus anthracis is the MOST DEADLY because it involves:
CVS collapse
coagulopathy
hemorrhaging into the lungs
shock and death
99% fatal w/in 24 hours
The GI form of Bacillus anthracis involves the ingestion of spores, which leads to:_____________ and is the most common form in dogs and cats, though rarely seen and not fatal.
V/D
swelling of mouth and throat
gastroenteritis
Treatment for Bacillus anthracis involves large dosages of _________ to surviving animals as well as quarantining of area for 3 weeks after last known case to prevent further outbreaks.
antibiotics
Bacillus anthracis is a disease that is reportable to the state. After seeing large GPRODS on a gram stain, tissues should be __________ and a necropsy ____________
sent to the state lab
is NEVER performed due to potential for further spread of the disease.
Carcasses, bedding, contaminated dirt from a Bacillus anthracis outbreak is _____________
burned or buried with a chemical disinfectant
Clostridium is an anaerobic spore forming LARGE GPROD that releases ___________
exotoxins
Clostridium botulinum is also known as ___________ and tends to affect humans, mammals and waterfowl, esp. ducks.
botulism
Clostridium botulinum in birds is known as __________ and tends to affect waterfowl, shore birds, scavenger birds.
Avian botulism ~ Limberneck
Clostridium botulinum tends to be acquired by __________ that may be found in poorly canned foods, animal carcasses, rotting vegetation (pond bottoms) and even in maggots.
ingestion of preformed EXOTOXIN in food source
The pathology of Clostridium botulinum involves the neurotoxicity of the EXOTOXIN produced by this bacteria which acts at a neuromuscular junction to prevent the release of ____________
acetylcholine ( a chemical that CAUSES muscle contraction)
The endotoxin involved in Clostridium botulinum prevents the release of acetylcholine, which results in __________, which in animals typically starts in the _________
muscle weakness and paralysis

hindquarters and progresses from there
Death from Clostridium botulinum is typically due to _________ and is ____% fatal
respiratory arrest and suffocation due to paralysis of respiratory muscles and diaphragm.
95%
Botulism antitoxin is available for people and horses, however, it is
EXPENSIVE
Clostridium tetani, a LARGE GPROD, also known as tetanus & lockjaw is most prevalent in :
(Most to least susceptible)
Humans and horses
ruminants (+/- immunize)
swine
carnivores - rare
poultry
The pathology of Clostridium tetani involves an neurotoxic endotoxin that blocks the function of __________, resulting in:
inhibitory neurons

muscle contractions, spasms, rigidity
Clostridium tetani infection starts out with contractions and spasms occurring in response to _______
startling stimuli such as loud noises or flashes of light
If untreated, Clostridium tetani will cause death in ___________ from suffocation due to rigidity of respiratory muscles.
1-2 weeks
A person suffering from a tetanus infection will typically have:
muscle spasms, lock jaw
A horse suffering from tetanus will typically be seen in a "_________" stance with a rigid gate IF able to walk
saw-horse
Treatment for tetanus involves:
tetanus antitoxin, antibiotics, muscle relaxers
Prevention of tetanus involves:
an immunization with a tetanus toxoid and antitoxin if exposed.
Name the 7 LARGE GPROD Clostridium bacteria
botulinum
tetani
perfringes
septicum
chauvoei
noveyi
haemolyticum
Clostridium perfringes , a LARGE GPROD, causes Clostridal enterotoxemia and tends to affect people, dogs and cats but is especially important in ___________
large animals
Clostridal enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringes produces 12 different endotoxins and in addition to GI effects, can also cause ________
wound infections and gas gangrene
Clostridal enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringes is acquired through ingestion of spores and some of the factors that can predispose to infection are:
changes in diet, over eating, intestinal parasites, antibiotics, stress.
Clostridal enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringes affects intestinal environment so spores______
become vegetative and then release exotoxins
Clostridal enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringes produces exotoxins that damage the MM of ________, which leads to hemmorrhagic enteritis and systemic_____
intestines
toxemia
Clostridal enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringes in large animals is often seen as the animal is 100% health the day before and then is suffering from:
hemorrhagic enteritis, systemic toxemia, ataxia, coma and death. Often found dead.
Clostridal enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringes is diagnosed by looking for __________
large rods that resemble safety pins (3-5/hpf significant)
Treatment for Clostridal enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringes involves an ____________
antitoxin to young LARGE animals if showing symptoms
antibiotics
Clostridium septicum is a histotoxic anerobic myocitis (muscle inflammation) that affects_____ and is acquired by endospores_______
large animals
entering wounds
Clostridium septicum pathology typically involves tissues necrosis, edema, gas gangrene and __________
systemic toxemia and is highly fatal
**immunization is available
Clostridium chauvoei is a histotoxic bacteria that affects_________ and is also known as "__________" and is acquired through endospores being ingested or entering a wound
large animals
black leg disease
The pathology of Clostridium chauveoi involves the EXOTOXINS causing swelling, edema, gas gangrene and the skin becoming _______, and eventually systemic toxemia leads to death.
discolored

**immunization available
Clostridium novyi causes infectious necrotic hepatitis and affects _________, is also known as Black Disease, and is more common in areas with liver flukes.
large animals
Clostridium novyi is acquired through ingestion of the spores and pre-existing liver damage makes an animal _____________ and is highly fatal
more susceptible

**immunization available
Clostridium haemolyticum is also known as Bacilliary hemoglobinuria~red water disease, affects ______________.
large animals
Clostridium haemolyticum is acquired through ingestion of spores, and pre-exisiting liver damage makes an animal more susceptible. This bacteria releases and exotoxin which causes ______, which results in _________ and is highly fatal.
hemolysis of RBC's
dark red urine, anemia and high fever

**immunization is available