Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does the study of microorganisms include?;
The study of Bacteria, viruses, Fungi, Algae, and Protozoa
What is the purpose of study of microorganisms?;
The purpose is for isolation, identification, and control.
Who is credited with the birth of microbiology through the invention of the microscope?;
Anton VonLeeuwenhoek
Who is credited with the development of the smallpox vaccine?;
Edward Jenner
Who is credited with the introduction of hand washing in hospitals?;
Ignaz Semmelweiss
Who is known as the father of modern microbiology?;
Lois Pasteur
Who is credited with theory that a particular organism is responsible for a particular disease and what was this called?;
Koch's postulate
Who is credited with the discovery of penicillin?;
Alexander Flemming
Who discovered DNA and the fact that it contains genetic material?;
Watson and Crick
Define what Prokaryotes are?;
They are primitive life forms which maintain a primitive nucleus
Define the structure of the life form eukaryotic?;
The eukaryotic has a well defined nucleus and organelles.
What is the technical classification of bacteria?;
Kingdom Monera
What is a Pilus?;
It is a surface associated filament much smaller than the flagella. It is composed of protein-pilin.
*It allows cells to attach together for DNA transfer.
What are Bacterial spines,where are they located, what are they for, and what is their purpose?;
Bacterial spines are ridgid and made mostly of proteins. They are found mainly in marine bacteria. The purpose of the spines is for defense as they prevent ingestion by larger organisms.
What is a bacterial capsule and what purpose does it serve?;
The bacterial capsule surrounds the outside of a cell. It is thick and consists largely of polysaccharides. It is used to attach to surfgaces i.e. human tissue. The surface provides physical protection from chemicals, drugs.
What is an axial filament?;
An axial filament is associated with surfaces i.e. cell walls of spirochetes. It is used for mobility of bacteria. A bacteria would have either flagellum or axial filaments- not both.
What is the name of bacterium that has lost its cell wall called?;
A protoplast
What is a plasmid?;
It is an extra piece of chromosomal DNA.
What is a Ribosome and what does it do?;
It contains RNA and protein. It takes amino acids and joins them, into proper sequence to make a protein molecule.
What is an inclusion?;
An inclusion is deposits of reserve material found in a cell.
What is metabolism?;
Metabolism is the entire set of chemical reactions that maintain life.
What is catabolism?;
Catabolism are the reaction in which complex organic nutrients are broken down to simpler organic and inorganic compounds. Energy is both ovtained and stored in the form of ATP.
What is anabolism?;
Those reactions in which energy stored in ATP is used to synthesize macro-molecules (used to make protein, enzymes, Flagella, Cell walls/membranes, etc.) the stuff needed to reproduce.
What is ATP?;
ATP is the energy currency of the cell.
What is ATP known as?
Phosphorylation reaction.
What are the 2 types of phosphorylation reactions? (keep in mind that that they are depending on where energy comes from.);
Photophosphorylation-energy comes from light

Substrate level phosphorylation-break down complex nutrients-in process energy is given off.(most bacteria use substrate level)
What is glycolysis? also known as the metabolic pathway;
1)molecule glucose (6c)-2ATP-2ADP
breakdown glucose-use 2ATP-Yields 2 ADP cuts carbon in half.
2)Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (3c) Break high energy bond of ATP-extra phosphates attach to end of 3rd carbon
End up with 2 pyruvic acid molecules plus 4 ATP plus 2 NADH
Net yield=2ATP + 2 NADH
Define heterotrophs?;
They are bacteria which require preformed organic nutrients to grow.
Define autotrophs?;
They are bacteria which preforms its own organic nutrients to row. They use photosynthesis
Define Hypotrophs?;
They obligate intracellular parasites
as they cannot grow on its own. Doesn't grow in medium. Only grows in susceptable host cell i.e. virus/ They destroy the host cell and move on to the next.
Under gaseous requirements. What is aerobic?;
Require oxygen
Under gaseous requirements. What can factultative anaerobes do?;
They can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.
What is the gaseous requirement of microaerophillic?;
They need oxygen, but at reduced levels.
What is the gaseous requirement of anaerobes?;
They only grow in absence of oxygen.
What are the thermal requirements of psychrophiles?;
They are cold loving organisms (0-20 C)
What are the thermal requirements of mesophiles?;
Moderate temps,(20-45 deg C)
What are the thermal requirements of thermophiles?;
Greater than 45 deg. C (heat lovers)
What does the term cardinal temperatures mean?
1)minimum temp below which it won't grow.
2)maximum temp above which it won't grow.
3)optimum temp-best growth.
What are the 4 steps of growth curve?;
1)Lag phase-no increase in # of cells preparing for cell div.
2)Log phase-reproduction highest and death lowest. Logarithmic increase in # of cells(X2, X4, X8, X16) lots of food.
3)Stationary phase-So many bacteria made that bacterial growth=bacterial death. Finite amt of food so not as much avail. to cell waste products produced so thy live in their waste.
What are the 4 ways that we measure growth?;
1)Chemical analysis-looking for total amt. of protein.
2)Turbidity-Cloudiness-you place media in ethylnometer-light passes through media.
3)Dry weight-Dry crucible and weigh what's left.
4)Direct counts-under microscope.
Define Phenotype?;
Physical expression of makeup.
Define gene?
The fundamental unit of heredity.
Name 2 purines?;
Adenine and Guanine
Name two Pyrimidines?
Thymine and Cytosine
When does DNA replication take place?
Replication takes place before the organism divides. It is catalyzed by enzyme DNA polymerase. DNA polymerase breaks hydrogen bond;strand opens up catalyzes new strand of DNA between original strands two new strands are identical to each other and identical to original.
Describe RNA?
RNA is different from DNA. It contains ribose, deoxyribose(both DNA and RNA have 5 carbon sugars, both in backbone of RNA/DNA) RNA single stranded RNA contains to thymine-Contains uracil instead.
What are the 3 types of RNA?;
1)Messanger RNA or MRNA
2)Transfer RNA or TRNA
3)Ribosomal RNA or RRNA
In DNA transfer what are the 3 transfer processes?;
1)Transformation-Naked piece of DNA transfers from one cell to second cell, usually following the death of first cell.(Chromosome release on death of cell and absorbed by recipient cell.)
2)Conjugation-2 cells in direct physical contact(bacterial sex) Pili form bridge and DNA transfers from one cell to next.
3)Transduction-DNA transfers by means of a bacterial virus(phage) which attaches to surface of bacterial cell. Phage DNA becomes encased in code spliced into DNA of second cell.Acts as vecotor to transport piece of DNA to second cell.