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65 Cards in this Set

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Which are correct about gram negative cell walls
contains LPS]
thin layer of peptidoglycan
bounded by a outer cell membrane
gram positive cell walls
teichoic acid present
thick layer of peptidoglycan
contains 70s ribosomes
flagella composed of packets of protein called flagellin
contain no membrane
Procaryotes
molecules composed of alternating molecules of NAG and NAM with amino acid bridging
peptoglycan
contains two large homologous chromosomes
divides by simple mitosis
eukaryotes
proteins act as enzymes to catalyze reactions
mostly a bilayer of phospholipids
proteins form channels
may act as a selective barrier
prokaryotic cell membrane
which are correct about sporogenesis in bacteria
cell membrane moves down between replicated DNA,
peptidogycan is deposited between membranes,
terminal spore is seen at the end of the bacillus,
germination creates one bacteria,
amphitrichous
single flagella arrangement at each pole of the bacteria
monotrichous
one flagella at the end of bacteria
lophotrichous
two or more flagella at the end of bacteria
peritrichous
all around the flagella of bacteria
A mucopolysaccaride that protects the bacteria from phagocytic cells in the body
capsule
cluster of cocci
staphylococci
organelle that both eucaryotic and procaryotic cells
ribosome
genera contains no cell wall
Mycoplasma
pathway for producing riboses and deoxyriboses from glucose
Pentose phosphate
Glycolysis end product is
Pyruvate acid
Glycolysis
does not req. oxygen, generates net two ATP's per glucose, occurs in the cytoplasm, end product of two molecules of pyruvic acid, produes 2NADH's per glucose
two molecules with the same atoms but a different arrangement of the atom are
isomeres
amount of energy req. for chemical reaction to occur
activation
PEP phosphoenolpyruvic acid to pyruvic acid best illustrates which phosphorylation
substrate phosphorylation
organic molecule that can supplement or attach to the active site so the substrate can fit
coenzyme
enzyme that removes atoms without water
lyase
the competitive inhibitor bonds with the
active site
glucose to pyruvic acid, glucose to CO2 and water, fats(lipid) to fatty acids and glycerol can be describe by
catabolic-lg. molecule breaks down to sm. molecules
who coin the word "cell"
Hook
the first microscope was used by
Janssen
Roman culture did what?
developed sewer system, developed tech. in food perservation, constructed aquaducts
Greeks culture did what
promoted boiling of water,
Egyptian culture did what
developed applications of chemotherapy,
Hebrew culture did what
developed isolation of sick people,
who developed scientific nomenclature
Linneaus
The big bang occured about
15 billion years ago
bacteria and other microorganisms have the ability to
ferment a variety of products like acetone, play a role as decomposers, play a role in production of a variety of foods, make drugs like insulin
study of fungi is called
mycolgy
metabolism
sum of the chemical reactions in an organism all the chemical reactions in the cell
anabolic
small molecule becomes a large molecule uses energy
hydolysis
involves breaking up water bond
phosphorylation
addition of a phosphate to a chemical compound
carboxylation
addition of a CO2
decarboxylation
removal of a CO2
enzymes
speed up the chemical reaction lowering the amt.of energy
product
unchanged enzyme
coenzymes
non protein, organic molecules derived from vitamins, allow an awkward substate to fit into an active site
NAD, NADP, FAD, CoA are examples of
coezymes
ligase
joining of molecules uses ATP building RNA, DNA, and req. energy
metabolic pathway
series of biochemical reaction each catalysis by a enzyme
phosphorylation of ADP generated by
ATP
Entner-Doudoroff pathway
Pseudomoas, Rhizobium, Agrobacteria, bacteria don't have the energy to make glycose, produce one ATP, will have 2 Pyruvic acid
metabolic pathway
occurs in the cytoplasm, end product is 2 Pyruvic acid, no oxygen, net of 2 ATP's
operates simultaneously with glycolysis and provided a means for the breakdown of pentose glucose, nucleic acid, carbonioxide, certain amino acid, certain amino acids
Pentose phosphate pathway
biosythesis
small molecule converts to a large molecule, another term for anabolism
oxidative-phosporlylation
the process by which ATP is formed through a series of oxidation-reduction reactions that occur during the final phase of respiration
glycosis takes place in
cytoplasm
2 pyruvate acid=

1 glucose=
1 ATP

36 ATP's
NADH=
3 ATP's
electron transport chain or ETC
found in the inner membrane of michodrial or inner membrane of bacteria, cytochomes and FMN are going to carry electrons
Krebs cycle generates
NADH and FADH2
no oxygen, a bunch of NADH's and FADH2 will build up and the NADH will act as a noncopetive inhibitor and shut down the Krebs cycle leaving only Pyrvic acid and the glycolysis will give up the Pyrvic acid
fermentation
fermentation
Pyruvic acid---------->Lactic acid, NADH is oxidized and Pyruvic acid is reduced.
found the right temp. to kill the bad microbe so wine won't spoil, saved the wine Industry in France, believed another silkworm disease was caused by a protozoan, came up with the treatment of rabies, cholera vaccine, showed microbes in the air can spoil food and cause animal diseases
Pasteur
showed that a silkworm disease was caused by a fungus.
Bassi
rule to wash hands with a lime solution
Semmelweis
phenol was sprayed as a disinfective on bandages
Lister
discovered causes of cholera, TB, a specific microbe causes a specific disease, isolation technique, anthrax, use a agar stain isolation
Koch