Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/77

Click to flip

77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
comes from the greek word prenucleus
prokaryote
comes from the greek words true nucleus
eukaryote
one circular chromosome, not in a membrane

p or e
prokaryote
no histones

p or e
prokaryote
no organelles

p or e
prokaryote
peptidoglycan cell walls

p or e
prokaryote
binary fission

p or e
prokaryote
paired chromosomes, in nuclear membrane

p or e
prokaryote
histones

p or e
eukaryote
organelles

p or e
eukaryote
polysaccharide cell walls

p or e
eukaryote
mitotic spindle

p or e
eukaryote
what is the average size of bacteria
0.2 - 1.0 um x 2 - 9 um
what are the basic shapes of bacteria
coccus
bacillus
sprillium
what are unusual shapes of bacteria
star-shaped stella
square haloarcula
most bacteria are
monomorphic
a few bacteria are
pleomorphic
what are the arrangements for bacteria in pairs
diplococci, diplobacilli
what are the arrangements for bacteria in clusters
staphylococci
what are the arrangements for bacteria in chains
streptococci, streptobacilli
glycocalyx is ______ cell wall
outside
the texture of glycocalyx is usually
sticky
in a glycocalyx, a capsule is
neatly organized
in a glycocalyx, a slime layer is
unorganized and loose
in a glycocalyx, extrecellular polysaccharide allows
cell to attach
in glycocalyx, capsules prevent
phagocytosis
flagella is _____ cell wall
outside
flagella is made of chains of
flagellin
flagella is attached to
a protein hook
flagella is anchored to the _____ and membrane by the _______
wall
basal body
what are the 4 types of flagella arrangement
monotrichious
amphitrichious
lophotrichous
peritrichous
motile cells rotate flagella to
run or tumble
motile cells move toward or away from
stimuli (taxis)
flagella proteins are
H antigens
endoflagella is an
axial filament
endoflagella is in
spirochetes
endoflagella is anchored at
one end of the cell
the rotation of endoflagella causes
the cell to move
fimbriae allows
attachment
pili are used to
transfer DNA from one cell to another
cell walls prevent
osmotic lysis from spreading
the cell wall is made of
peptidoglycan (in bacteria)
the polymer of disaccharide, N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)
peptidoglycan
what is linked by polypeptides
peptidoglycan
gram-positive cell walls have ______ peptidoglycan
thick
gram-positive cell walls have _____ acids
teichoic
gram-positive cell walls: in acid-fast cells, they contain
mycolic acid
gram-negative cell walls have _____ peptidoglycan
thin
gram-negative cell walls have ________ acids
no teichoic
gram-negative cell walls: _____ membrane
outer
gram-positive cell walls: lipoteichoic acid links to
plasma membrane
gram-positive cell walls: wall teichoic acid links to
peptidoglycan
gram-positive cell walls: may regulate movement of
cations
gram-positive cell walls: polysaccharides provide
antigenic variation
gram-negative outer membrane contain
lipopolysaccharides
lipoproteins
phospholipids
gram-negative outer membrane forms the _______ between the _____________
periplasm
outer membrane and the plasma membrane
gram-negative outer membrane: protection from
phagocytes, complement, and antibiotics
gram-negative outer membrane: _____________ antigen
O polysaccharide antigen
gram-negative outer membrane: _____ is an endotoxin
Lipid A
porins
proteins
gram-negative outer membrane: porins form
channels through membrane
gram stain mechanism: what forms in the cell
crystal violet-iodine crystals
gram stain mechanism-gram-positive:

alcohol dehydrates
peptidoglycan
gram stain mechanism-gram-positive:

CV-I crystals
do not leave
gram stain mechanism-gram-negative:

______ dissolves outer membrane and leaes holes in peptidoglycan
alcohol
gram stain mechanism-gram-negative:

CV-I
washes out
damage to cell walls:

______ digests disaccharide in peptidoglycan
lysozyme
damage to cell walls:

______ inhibits peptide bridges in peptidoglycan
penicillin
damage to cell walls:

protoplast is a _______
wall-less cell
spheroplast is a
wall-less gram-positive cell
L forms are
wall-less cells that swell into irregular shapes
protoplasts and spheroplasts are susceptible
osmotic lysis
endospores
resting cells
endospores are resistant to
desiccation, heat, chemicals
examples of endospores
Bacillus, Clostridium
sporulation
endospore formation
germination
return to vegetative state