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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Acellular vaccine
a vaccine preparation that contains specifi antigens such as the capsule or toxin from a pathogen and not the whole microbe (acellular - without a cell)
Active Immunity
Immunity acquired through direct stimulation of the immune system by antigen
Agglutination
the aggregation by antibodies of suspended cells or simliar-sized particles (agglutinogens) into clumps that settle
Antigen-presenting cells
A microphage or dendritic cell that ingests and degrade an antigen and subsequently places the antigenic determinant molecules on its surface for recognition by CD4 T lymphocytes
Antigens
Any cell, particle, or chemical that induces a specific immune response by B cells or T cells and can stimulate resistance to an infection or a toxin
Attenuate
To reduce the virulence of a pathogenic bacterium or virus by passing it through a non-native host or by long-term subculture.
Immunoglobin
The chemical class of proteins to which antibodies belong
Interleukin-1
a product of macrophages and epithelial cell that has many of the same biological activities as TNF, such as inducing fever and activation of certain white blood cells
Interleukin-2
the primary growth factor from T cells, interestingly, it ats on the same cells that secrete it. it stimlates mitosis and secretion of other cytokines. In B cells. it is a growth factor and stimulus for antibody synthesis
Memory Cells
The long-lived progeny of a sensitized lymphocyte that remains in circulation and is genetically programmed to react rapidly with its antigen
Neutralization
In neutralization reactions, antibodies fill the surface receptors on a virus or the active site on a microbial enzyme to prevent it from attaching normallly.
Opsonization
Antibodies called opsonins stimulate opsonization a process in which micoorganisms or other particles are coated with specific antibodies so that they wil be more readily recognized by phagocytes, which dispose of them, its like putting handles on a lippery object to provide phagocytes a better grip
Passive immunity
in passive immunity preformed antibodies are donated to an individual. It does not reate memory, acts immediatley, and is short term.
Plasma Cells
A progenyof an activated B cell that actively produces and secretes antibodies.
Primary Response
The first response of the immune system when exposed to an antigen
Acellular vaccine
a vaccine preparation that contains specifi antigens such as the capsule or toxin from a pathogen and not the whole microbe (acellular - without a cell)
Active Immunity
Immunity acquired through direct stimulation of the immune system by antigen
Agglutination
the aggregation by antibodies of suspended cells or simliar-sized particles (agglutinogens) into clumps that settle
Antigen-presenting cells
A microphage or dendritic cell that ingests and degrade an antigen and subsequently places the antigenic determinant molecules on its surface for recognition by CD4 T lymphocytes
Antigens
Any cell, particle, or chemical that induces a specific immune response by B cells or T cells and can stimulate resistance to an infection or a toxin
Attenuate
To reduce the virulence of a pathogenic bacterium or virus by passing it through a non-native host or by long-term subculture.
Immunoglobin
The chemical class of proteins to which antibodies belong
Interleukin-1
a product of macrophages and epithelial cell that has many of the same biological activities as TNF, such as inducing fever and activation of certain white blood cells
Interleukin-2
the primary growth factor from T cells, interestingly, it ats on the same cells that secrete it. it stimlates mitosis and secretion of other cytokines. In B cells. it is a growth factor and stimulus for antibody synthesis
Memory Cells
The long-lived progeny of a sensitized lymphocyte that remains in circulation and is genetically programmed to react rapidly with its antigen
Neutralization
In neutralization reactions, antibodies fill the surface receptors on a virus or the active site on a microbial enzyme to prevent it from attaching normallly.
Opsonization
Antibodies called opsonins stimulate opsonization a process in which micoorganisms or other particles are coated with specific antibodies so that they wil be more readily recognized by phagocytes, which dispose of them, its like putting handles on a lippery object to provide phagocytes a better grip
Passive immunity
in passive immunity preformed antibodies are donated to an individual. It does not reate memory, acts immediatley, and is short term.
Plasma Cells
A progenyof an activated B cell that actively produces and secretes antibodies.
Primary Response
The first response of the immune system when exposed to an antigen
Secondary Response
The rapid rise in antibody titer following a repeat exposure to an antigen that has been recognized from a previous exposure. This response is brought about by memory cells produced as a result of the primary exposure.
Vaccine
Originally used in reference to inoculation with the cowpox or vaccinia to protect against smallpox. In general the term now pertains to injection of whole microbes (killed to attenuated), toxoids or parts of microbes as a prevention or cure for disease.