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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is a microorganism
-a large diverse group of free living organisms
-single celled or cell clusters
-able to grow, generate energy, and reproduce without the aid of other cells
what is microbiology
-the study of microorganisms
-to understand how microogranisms work and devise ways that benefits may be increased and damages curtailed
how have micros affected human existence?
-"Black Death"
-Irish potato famine
-Infectious diseases
-1918 influenza epidemic
-antibiotic drugs
what is "Black Death"
-bubonic plague
-killed 1/4 of the whole population of Europe
What happened to the potatoes in the Irish potato famine in the 1840s
the Irish potato was attacked by a fungus
More soldiers died from _____________ ___________ in WWI than from guns.
infectious diseases
HIV causes
How many people died in the 1918 influenza epidemic
202 million
what was the first antibiotic
what are the possible reasons for the differences in deaths during 1900 and 1984?
-disinfection of hands by doctors
-water treatment
what are legumes
a group of plants that live in close association with special bacteria, which form tiny nodules on their roots
what happens when a plant has root nodules
atmospheric nitrogen is converted into fixed nitrogen compounds that the plants can use for growth
what is rumen
a special digestive organ (near the stomach) in which microorganisms carry out the digestive process (dairy cows, beef catte, sheep)
food preservation is rougly ___________ industry
$30 billion
foods made with the aid of microogoranisms is rougly a ____________ industry
$100 billion
what is methane
-natural gas
-product of bacterial action
how do microorganisms have the potential to provide us with an answer to our energy crisis
-chemical feedstocks
in 1664, robert hook discovered the _______ and viewed ______
microscope, molds
who was the first to see microbes in great detail?
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
what did Antoni van Leeuwenhoek do in 1674
viewed bacteria on his teeth
what did Leeuwenhoek call the bacteria on his teeth
"wee animalcules"
what did louis pasteur prove
that fresh air was necessary for spontaneous generatioin
what did louis pasteur create
the swan-necked flask
what did the swan-necked flask do
disproved the theory of spontaneous generation
what did louis pasteur inspire
the creation of sterilization methods to kill all bacteria and germs in canning and preservation of foods
what did people in the early 1600s view disease as
things passed from one diseased person to a healthy person
what was disease that was spread called
what was the unknown thing that spread the disease called
what did Leeuwenhoek's work suggest
that microbes were responsible
what did Berkeley prove in 1846
that a microorganism was the cause of the Irish potato famine
what did Robert Koch develop in 1876
the germ theory of disease while working with Bacillus anthracis, he proved this bacerium caused anthrax
what did koch's work provide
experimental basis for the isolation and culture of a number of other infectious agents
what is a pure culture
a group of cells that have arisen via successive cell divisions from a single parent cell
what is semisolid medium
Koch developed a gelatin and nutrient mixture for growing microbes on
what was agar developed from
what was the gelatin and nutrient mixture that Koch developed
what else is tuberculosis called
consumption or phthisis
what did Koch and Mycobacterium tuberculosis succeed in
isolating it and testing it to be a contagion
Kosh developed staining procedures for
microscopic examination
what was the microscopic examination of
the tissues for the presece of bacteria
what were the challenges of working with M. tuberculosis
-10days to 2weeks of incubation to grow
-difficult to stain for microscope, stain needed to be made with more alkaline wth KOH and then flash heated adhere to the microbe
what is Koch's 1st postulate
The organism must always be found in animals suffering from the disease and must not be present in healthy individuals
What is Koch's 2nd postulate
the organism must be cultivatd in pure culture away from the animal body
what is Koch'3 3rd postulate
such a culture, when inoculated into suspectable animals, must initiate the characterisitc disease symptoms
what is Koch's 4th postulate
The organism must be reisolated from these experimental animals and cultured again in the laboratory, after which it must still be the same as the original organism