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23 Cards in this Set

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glycolysis:substrate level phosphorylation
-2 ATP to +2 ATP
end pdts: lactate,ethanol,enteric bacteria
:swiss,yogurt,wine,nail polish, vinegar
most organisms will use pyruvate to produce lots of fuel(NADH,NADPH,FADH) for ATP synthesis. First involves oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and feeding of the remaining 2 carbons into the citric acid cycle (krebs).
respiration:the citric-acid cycles
8NADH (2 from glycolysis)
6CO2 (glucose is burnt)
4ATP (2 from glycolysis)
(cycle of 8 carbons)
electron transport
initial donors are NADH and NADPH generated from redox rxns in glycolysis of krebs.
most important electron carriers
1.NADH dehydrogenases
2.flavoproteins (FMN,FAD)
3.Fe-S proteins
4.cytochromes, with heme
5.non-protein, lipid-soluable
Fe-S centers of non-heme Fe-S proteins (2 or 4 of each)
cysteines are part of apoproteins and are linked to Fe by covalent bonds thru the S in their side chains
flavine mononucleotide
3 hexagons with diagonal = N's
intermediate 2H
pdt:reduced, chain
1 hexagon, 2 C=O bonds
intermediate 2H
pdts: 1 hexagon w/ 2 C-OH's
a lipid-soluable non-protein e- carrier
(snowflake pattern)
combo of 9 pent/hexagons
Fe in the middle
The side chains on the pyrroles of the porphyrin ring and the apoprotein modulate the reduction potential of the Fe in the ring.
cytochromes reduction potentials of Fe in the hemes of cytochromes
Fe3+ + e- --> Fe2+
membrane-associated electron transport
creation of proton-motive force
inhibited by cyanide, carbon monoxide and antimycin A
ATP synthase
uses proton motive force to synthesize ATP. 2 or 3 protons are required for synthesize of 1 ATP. C12 rotates and generates torque
oxidative phosphorylation
NADH from glycolysis, krebs, pentose phosphate pathway, and entner-duodoroff pathway.
ATP yield assuming complete oxidation of glucose
overall rxn:
pyruvate + 4NAD + FAD---->
3CO2 + 4NADH + FAD

1.substrate level phosphorylation: GDP + Pi=GTP

2.electron transport phohsphorylation: 4NADH-=12ATP

3. CAC plus glycolysis=38 ATP per glucose
catabolic alternatives
(chemoorganotrophic metab)
anaerobic and aerobic
organic is primary e- donor, e- acceptors can be organic or inorganic
catabolic alternatives
(chemolithotrophic metab)
inorganic compound is primary donor and e- acceptors can be organic or inorganic.
bioenergetics of 2-hydrogenase aerobic H2 bacteria
non-photosynthetic CO2 fixation. make NADH for the calvin cycle, formation of proton motive force.reducing power comes from reverse electron flow.
oxidation of reduced S by aerobic chemolithotrophs
sulfite oxidase pathway accounts for majority of sulfite oxidized. e- from S energized by light.compounds drive prton motive force. NADH must be made by energy-consuming rxns of reverse e- flow.
energy from ferrous Fe oxidation
energized by light. acidothiobacillus ferroxidans
the periplasmic Cu is immediate acceptor, reduces power to drive calvin cycle, steep pH gradient
respiration of the heterotroph e.coli under aerobic conditions
OXYGEN on the right with 3H
respiration of the heterotroph e.coli under anaerobic conditions
nitrate is final e- acceptor and only 4H are pumped out to generate the proton motive force
NADH is primary e- donor***
catabolic alternatives
energy from light is used to produce proton motive force
1.photohetero: organic to biosynthesis by C flow
2.photoauto: CO2 to biosynthesis by C flow
3.light to e- flow to proton motive force to ATP
most important e- transport carriers
NADH dehydrogenase
flavoproteins w/ FMN or FAD
Fe-S proteins
non-protein carriers